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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 5 stress on courtesy, kindness and sociability. In low-context cultures communications or messages are “vested in the explicit code” (Hall 1977, p.91). That is, communications in low-context cultures are long, elaborated, and explicit so that outsiders can understand the meanings of the messages. However, communications do not function as unifying forces of socio-cultural systems. The low-context cultures tend to promote fundamental questions, admit indeterminacy, and respect the concept of “monochromic time” which means “one things at a time.” Based on Hall’s notions, Irwin (1996) compared communication styles between Asian and western cultures and he found that most Asian cultures including Korea belong to high-context culture, whereas most western cultures including the U.S. belong to low-context culture. Communication apprehension A tendency to activate or avoid communication "permeates every facet of an individual's life and contributes significantly to the social, educational, and organizational achievements of the individual" (Richmond and Roach 1992, p. 104). McCroskey (1970, 1977 1982, 1985; 1997) has conceptually defined communication apprehension as "an individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons." According to McCroskey (1997), communication apprehension may be a continuum from a trait-like anxiety to a state apprehension in a given context or situation. Communication apprehension has been investigated in a variety of contexts or situations, including the areas of medicine and health (Booth-Butterfield, Chory, and Beynon 1997; Kelly and Patterson 1997; Sawyer and Behnke 1997), performance (Pelias 1997), employment interview situations (Ayres and Crosby 1995; Ayres, Keereetaweep,

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
5
stress on courtesy, kindness and sociability. In low-context cultures communications or
messages are “vested in the explicit code” (Hall 1977, p.91). That is, communications in
low-context cultures are long, elaborated, and explicit so that outsiders can understand
the meanings of the messages. However, communications do not function as unifying
forces of socio-cultural systems. The low-context cultures tend to promote fundamental
questions, admit indeterminacy, and respect the concept of “monochromic time” which
means “one things at a time.” Based on Hall’s notions, Irwin (1996) compared
communication styles between Asian and western cultures and he found that most Asian
cultures including Korea belong to high-context culture, whereas most western cultures
including the U.S. belong to low-context culture.
Communication apprehension
A tendency to activate or avoid communication "permeates every facet of an
individual's life and contributes significantly to the social, educational, and organizational
achievements of the individual" (Richmond and Roach 1992, p. 104). McCroskey (1970,
1977 1982, 1985; 1997) has conceptually defined communication apprehension as "an
individual's level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated
communication with another person or persons." According to McCroskey (1997),
communication apprehension may be a continuum from a trait-like anxiety to a state
apprehension in a given context or situation.
Communication apprehension has been investigated in a variety of contexts or
situations, including the areas of medicine and health (Booth-Butterfield, Chory, and
Beynon 1997; Kelly and Patterson 1997; Sawyer and Behnke 1997), performance (Pelias
1997), employment interview situations (Ayres and Crosby 1995; Ayres, Keereetaweep,


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