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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 6 Chen, & Edwards 1998), workplace (Winiecki and Ayres1999), instructional contexts (Borzi and Mills 2001; Beatty and Valencic 2000; Dwyer 2000; Kelly 2000; Elkins 1996; Fordham and Gabbin 1996; Martin and Valencic 2002; Messman and Jones-Corley 2001; Roach 1999), computer-mediated communication (Flaherty, Pearce and Rubin 1998), as well as cross-cultural interactions (Klopf, 1997). Several studies have linked communication apprehension with personality traits (Beatty, McCroskey, and Heisel 1998; MacIntyre and Thivierge 1995; Opt and Loffredo 2000; Weaver, Sargent, and Kiewitz 1997). For example, McCroskey and Richmond (1996) found that a major factor that prohibits individuals from behaving in appropriately assertive and responsive ways is communication apprehension. According to them, because individuals with high communication apprehension tend to avoid communication, they are not likely to initiate conversation or develop their standpoints or arguments on the topic of a conversation, do not attempt to increase their communication with others, and are more likely to be unresponsive with others. Further, they argued that those tendencies may be highlighted in cross-cultural interactions where situational novelty, unfamiliarity, and dissimilarity prevail. Interestingly enough, Ayres and Schliesman (2002) successfully examined the effect of paradoxical intention as an alternative for the reduction of communication apprehension. All findings of those studies have shown that communication apprehension plays fairly negative roles in communicative interactions. That is, people with high communication apprehension avoid and withdraw from communication consistently which implies communication apprehension as a public enemy that should be eliminated from every part of society.

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
6
Chen, & Edwards 1998), workplace (Winiecki and Ayres1999), instructional contexts
(Borzi and Mills 2001; Beatty and Valencic 2000; Dwyer 2000; Kelly 2000; Elkins 1996;
Fordham and Gabbin 1996; Martin and Valencic 2002; Messman and Jones-Corley 2001;
Roach 1999), computer-mediated communication (Flaherty, Pearce and Rubin 1998), as
well as cross-cultural interactions (Klopf, 1997). Several studies have linked
communication apprehension with personality traits (Beatty, McCroskey, and Heisel
1998; MacIntyre and Thivierge 1995; Opt and Loffredo 2000; Weaver, Sargent, and
Kiewitz 1997). For example, McCroskey and Richmond (1996) found that a major factor
that prohibits individuals from behaving in appropriately assertive and responsive ways is
communication apprehension. According to them, because individuals with high
communication apprehension tend to avoid communication, they are not likely to initiate
conversation or develop their standpoints or arguments on the topic of a conversation, do
not attempt to increase their communication with others, and are more likely to be
unresponsive with others. Further, they argued that those tendencies may be highlighted
in cross-cultural interactions where situational novelty, unfamiliarity, and dissimilarity
prevail. Interestingly enough, Ayres and Schliesman (2002) successfully examined the
effect of paradoxical intention as an alternative for the reduction of communication
apprehension. All findings of those studies have shown that communication apprehension
plays fairly negative roles in communicative interactions. That is, people with high
communication apprehension avoid and withdraw from communication consistently
which implies communication apprehension as a public enemy that should be eliminated
from every part of society.


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