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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 7 Communication apprehension across culture Although a number of researches have been done in the area of communication apprehension, little research has been performed in assessing cross-cultural communication apprehension. The studies of cross-cultural communication apprehension have focused on “the problem of CA within individuals, but different, cultures" (Neuliep and McCroskey 1997, p. 147). After reviewing the past cross-cultural communication apprehension studies involving Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Micronesia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the U.S., Klopf (1997) noted cross-cultural differences in the way of viewing communication apprehension, are based mainly on the degree of silence acceptance. That is, in some cultures, silence is more valuable than talking (Asker 1998; Kobayashi & Grasmick 2001). Similarly, Keaten and his colleagues (1997) indicated cross-cultural differences in the degree of shyness along with silence. According to Klopf (1997), those aspects seem to explain why little research has been done in the field of cross-cultural communication apprehension. Relatively small numbers of studies have investigated the impact of culture on students’ communication apprehension in Finland (Porhola 1997) and Nigeria (Olaniran and Roach 1994). For example, in a study of investigating cross-cultural difference of the level of communication apprehension particularly for elementary school children, Watson, Monroe, and Atterstrom (1989) found that Swedish children had more communication apprehension than American children. Hackman and Barthel-Hackman (1993) reported differences in the level of communication apprehension between U.S. and New Zealand college students. Further, Keaten and his colleagues (1997) examined

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
7
Communication apprehension across culture
Although a number of researches have been done in the area of communication
apprehension, little research has been performed in assessing cross-cultural
communication apprehension. The studies of cross-cultural communication apprehension
have focused on “the problem of CA within individuals, but different, cultures" (Neuliep
and McCroskey 1997, p. 147).
After reviewing the past cross-cultural communication apprehension studies
involving Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Micronesia, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sweden,
Switzerland, Taiwan, and the U.S., Klopf (1997) noted cross-cultural differences in the
way of viewing communication apprehension, are based mainly on the degree of silence
acceptance. That is, in some cultures, silence is more valuable than talking (Asker 1998;
Kobayashi & Grasmick 2001). Similarly, Keaten and his colleagues (1997) indicated
cross-cultural differences in the degree of shyness along with silence. According to Klopf
(1997), those aspects seem to explain why little research has been done in the field of
cross-cultural communication apprehension.
Relatively small numbers of studies have investigated the impact of culture on
students’ communication apprehension in Finland (Porhola 1997) and Nigeria (Olaniran
and Roach 1994). For example, in a study of investigating cross-cultural difference of the
level of communication apprehension particularly for elementary school children,
Watson, Monroe, and Atterstrom (1989) found that Swedish children had more
communication apprehension than American children. Hackman and Barthel-Hackman
(1993) reported differences in the level of communication apprehension between U.S.
and New Zealand college students. Further, Keaten and his colleagues (1997) examined


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