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A cross-cultural comparison of the relationship between ICA, ICMS and assertiveness/cooperativeness tendencies
Unformatted Document Text:  Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness 9 Intercultural communication apprehension Intercultural communication apprehension (ICA) was defined by Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) as “the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people from different groups, especially different cultural or ethnic groups” (p. 147, 152). Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) developed the Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA) scale to estimate particularly the level of individuals’ intercultural communication apprehension. This scale is advanced as a way to assess contextual communication apprehension in a situation of intercultural interaction. Although that scale is based on the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) composed of dyadic, group, meeting, and public situations, the PRICA scale seems to focus merely on dyadic and group interaction situations. This study employed the PRICA scale to estimate the level of ICA of U.S. and Korean college students. Surprisingly enough, virtually there has been no previous empirical research investigated the impact of ICA across culture. Because culture and communication influence reciprocally, culture affects the way the members of the culture communicate, and the way of the members’ communication may alter their culture (Martin and Nakayama, 1997; Dodd, 1998; Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey 1996). Gudykunst (1995) and Gudykunst and Kim (1997) found that when individuals encounter cultural differences they tend to consider people from other cultures strangers. Strangers are unknown individuals from different cultural groups. Further, they argued that a situation interacting with those strangers may promote a high degree of strangeness and a low

Authors: Hong, Jongbae.
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Cross-cultural ICA, ICMS and Assertiveness/Cooperativeness
9
Intercultural communication apprehension
Intercultural communication apprehension (ICA) was defined by Neuliep and
McCroskey (1997) as “the fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated
interaction with people from different groups, especially different cultural or ethnic
groups” (p. 147, 152). Neuliep and McCroskey (1997) developed the Personal Report of
Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA) scale to estimate particularly the
level of individuals’ intercultural communication apprehension. This scale is advanced as
a way to assess contextual communication apprehension in a situation of intercultural
interaction. Although that scale is based on the Personal Report of Communication
Apprehension (PRCA-24) composed of dyadic, group, meeting, and public situations, the
PRICA scale seems to focus merely on dyadic and group interaction situations. This
study employed the PRICA scale to estimate the level of ICA of U.S. and Korean college
students.
Surprisingly enough, virtually there has been no previous empirical research
investigated the impact of ICA across culture. Because culture and communication
influence reciprocally, culture affects the way the members of the culture communicate,
and the way of the members’ communication may alter their culture (Martin and
Nakayama, 1997; Dodd, 1998; Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey 1996). Gudykunst (1995)
and Gudykunst and Kim (1997) found that when individuals encounter cultural
differences they tend to consider people from other cultures strangers. Strangers are
unknown individuals from different cultural groups. Further, they argued that a situation
interacting with those strangers may promote a high degree of strangeness and a low


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