All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Ranch State and CitizenSpace: Digital Democracy and Web Strategies for the United States and the United Kingdom
Unformatted Document Text:  11 directly accessing public opinion through ICTs. I believe that much of this empirical work is now being explored in terms of local governance (see previous article by Musso, et al), or national election politics (Elberse, et al, 2000; Dutton, 1999, Castells, 2001). Work on digital democracy in terms of a public participation in government ICT programs in foreign affairs is less covered – largely in part to the ingrained biases and assumptions about how foreign policy is formulated. Alternative routes to civic participation in foreign affairs and international relations through ICTs do exist – and are currently the subject of numerous empirical research projects. This important work highlights the lack of such participatory routes existing within governmental spheres of ICT policy. Nevertheless, if we are to analyze national web presence strategies, and explore how web sites represent the national web strategies towards digital democracy in foreign policy – it is important to, as Mark Hagen suggests, situate ICT projects within national contexts (Hagen, 2000, p. 55). By national context, I mean prevailing cultural norms and ideas about democratic participation and technology and their potential convergence. To begin with, Hagen claims that the United States has at the same time a profound openness to the possibilities of technology towards revitalizing democracy with a problem with mass media and politics. Social critics, especially social capital theorists like Putnam, have placed the blame for the lack of social capital on mass media – such as television. New technologies, embraced enthusiastically, could potentially serve as a recuperative device – to create a more informed electorate. Following Barber’s ideas – the Internet (via the Web) could engender strong democracy through town-hall meetings, electronic bulletin boards, etc., much like the promise of the City of Santa Monica’s PEN (Public Electronic Network) that linked local citizens and government officials and allowed discussion of important local issues (Dutton and Guthrie, 1991). This is coupled with a population already primed for Internet usage. Issues of digital divide aside, Hagen cites that nearly 40% of the American population is accessible via the

Authors: Hayden, Craig.
first   previous   Page 11 of 27   next   last



background image
11
directly accessing public opinion through ICTs. I believe that much of this empirical work is now
being explored in terms of local governance (see previous article by Musso, et al), or national
election politics (Elberse, et al, 2000; Dutton, 1999, Castells, 2001). Work on digital democracy
in terms of a public participation in government ICT programs in foreign affairs is less covered –
largely in part to the ingrained biases and assumptions about how foreign policy is formulated.
Alternative routes to civic participation in foreign affairs and international relations through ICTs
do exist – and are currently the subject of numerous empirical research projects. This important
work highlights the lack of such participatory routes existing within governmental spheres of ICT
policy.
Nevertheless, if we are to analyze national web presence strategies, and explore how web
sites represent the national web strategies towards digital democracy in foreign policy – it is
important to, as Mark Hagen suggests, situate ICT projects within national contexts (Hagen,
2000, p. 55). By national context, I mean prevailing cultural norms and ideas about democratic
participation and technology and their potential convergence.
To begin with, Hagen claims that the United States has at the same time a profound
openness to the possibilities of technology towards revitalizing democracy with a problem with
mass media and politics. Social critics, especially social capital theorists like Putnam, have placed
the blame for the lack of social capital on mass media – such as television. New technologies,
embraced enthusiastically, could potentially serve as a recuperative device – to create a more
informed electorate. Following Barber’s ideas – the Internet (via the Web) could engender strong
democracy through town-hall meetings, electronic bulletin boards, etc., much like the promise of
the City of Santa Monica’s PEN (Public Electronic Network) that linked local citizens and
government officials and allowed discussion of important local issues (Dutton and Guthrie,
1991). This is coupled with a population already primed for Internet usage. Issues of digital
divide aside, Hagen cites that nearly 40% of the American population is accessible via the


Convention
All Academic Convention makes running your annual conference simple and cost effective. It is your online solution for abstract management, peer review, and scheduling for your annual meeting or convention.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 11 of 27   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.