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Valenced news frames and public support for the EU
Unformatted Document Text:  RUNNING HEAD: Valenced news frames and public support for the EU 9 lengthier stories. For the newspapers articles were categorized as short, medium or long according to their length in lines. 5 News frames. Multiple item-scales were used to measure the presence of three news frames that all deal with consequences of an event (Gamson, 1992; Sotirovic, 2000): economic consequences, political-institutional consequences, and social-cultural consequences. The economic consequences frame “reports an event, problem, or issue in terms of the consequences it will have economically on an individual, group, institution, region, or country” (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000, p. 96). The political-institutional consequences frame reports on an issue in terms of political and institutional consequences it will have on groups, the EU as an organization as well as member states and applicant countries. The social-cultural consequences frame reports on an issue in terms of social and cultural consequences it will have on groups, organizations and countries. Four questions per frame were developed. Each of these was answered with ‘yes’ or ‘no’. For the questions identifying the economical consequences frame, we drew on measures developed by Semetko and Valkenburg (2000). The operationalization of the other two frames was similar. 6 The internal consistency of the scales were: for the economic consequences frame = .68, for the political -institutional co nsequences frame = .82, and for the social - cultural consequences = .78. Valence. To investigate the valence of the news framing, each story was classified as portraying the consequences of the summit as either advantageous or disadvantageous. This was done using a 5-point scale ranging from very advantageous (1) to neutral (3) and very disadvantageous (5). In the presentation of the results we classified the ends of the scale so that each story is either advantageous, neutral or disadvantageous. Experiment Design. To test the effects of valenced news, we used a single-factor, post-test only, between-subjects experimental design with random assignment to one of two conditions. One condition represented an advantageous political-institutional frame, the other a disadvantageous political-institutional frame. We opted for an experimental design to increase

Authors: De Vreese, Claes. and Boomgaarden, Hajo.
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RUNNING HEAD: Valenced news frames and public support for the EU
9
lengthier stories. For the newspapers articles were categorized as short, medium or long
according to their length in lines.
5
News frames. Multiple item-scales were used to measure the presence of three news
frames that all deal with consequences of an event (Gamson, 1992; Sotirovic, 2000):
economic consequences, political-institutional consequences, and social-cultural
consequences. The economic consequences frame “reports an event, problem, or issue in
terms of the consequences it will have economically on an individual, group, institution,
region, or country” (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000, p. 96). The political-institutional
consequences frame reports on an issue in terms of political and institutional consequences it
will have on groups, the EU as an organization as well as member states and applicant
countries. The social-cultural consequences frame reports on an issue in terms of social and
cultural consequences it will have on groups, organizations and countries.
Four questions per frame were developed. Each of these was answered with ‘yes’ or
‘no’. For the questions identifying the economical consequences frame, we drew on measures
developed by Semetko and Valkenburg (2000). The operationalization of the other two frames
was similar.
6
The internal consistency of the scales were: for the economic consequences
frame = .68, for the political
-institutional co
nsequences frame = .82, and for the social
-
cultural consequences = .78.
Valence. To investigate the valence of the news framing, each story was classified
as portraying the consequences of the summit as either advantageous or disadvantageous.
This was done using a 5-point scale ranging from very advantageous (1) to neutral (3) and
very disadvantageous (5). In the presentation of the results we classified the ends of the scale
so that each story is either advantageous, neutral or disadvantageous.
Experiment
Design. To test the effects of valenced news, we used a single-factor, post-test only,
between-subjects experimental design with random assignment to one of two conditions. One
condition represented an advantageous political-institutional frame, the other a
disadvantageous political-institutional frame. We opted for an experimental design to increase


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