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Accounting Episodes as Communicative Practice Affecting Cultural Knowledge
Unformatted Document Text:  20 to make friends with “Americans.” The following excerpt supports this idea. Hiroko stated as follows when I asked her why her friends were mostly Japanese and other Asians. Excerpt 12 #10(Hiroko) p. 4 It would be best if I can make friends with Americans but it’s not so easy.... The main reason is something like a language barrier. I speak to them and try hard to talk, but because I can’t yet speak well, the topics just end, and I’d like to talk but it doesn’t go well. The informants were caught in a vicious circle. On one hand, they tended not to engage in accounting episodes with “Americans” because they perceived a difficulty in expressing themselves in English. As a result of non-confrontation, their cultural knowledge or their image of “Americans” was not affected, and also, their relationships with others did not develop. On the other hand, because they did not have trusting relationships with “Americans” beyond the ones in which they merely exchanged greetings, the informants were hesitant in engaging in accounting episodes. As a result, their English would not improve and their perception of difficulty stayed as it had been before. They did not get a chance to have their cultural knowledge affected. Conclusion By analyzing Japanese-speaking informants’ experiences of being involved in problematic situations with American English speakers, I made two observations. First, on one hand, when the informants engaged in accounting episodes with English speakers, chances were that they became aware of the boundary between them and others regarding appropriate conducts and that

Authors: Kotani, Mariko.
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20
to make friends with “Americans.” The following excerpt
supports this idea. Hiroko stated as follows when I asked her
why her friends were mostly Japanese and other Asians.
Excerpt 12 #10(Hiroko) p. 4
It would be best if I can make friends with Americans
but it’s not so easy.... The main reason is something
like a language barrier. I speak to them and try hard
to talk, but because I can’t yet speak well, the topics
just end, and I’d like to talk but it doesn’t go well.
The informants were caught in a vicious circle. On one hand,
they tended not to engage in accounting episodes with
“Americans” because they perceived a difficulty in expressing
themselves in English. As a result of non-confrontation, their
cultural knowledge or their image of “Americans” was not
affected, and also, their relationships with others did not
develop. On the other hand, because they did not have trusting
relationships with “Americans” beyond the ones in which they
merely exchanged greetings, the informants were hesitant in
engaging in accounting episodes. As a result, their English
would not improve and their perception of difficulty stayed as
it had been before. They did not get a chance to have their
cultural knowledge affected.
Conclusion
By analyzing Japanese-speaking informants’ experiences
of being involved in problematic situations with American
English speakers, I made two observations. First, on one hand,
when the informants engaged in accounting episodes with English
speakers, chances were that they became aware of the boundary
between them and others regarding appropriate conducts and that


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