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Agenda Setting Effects on Online Users: The analysis of the World Cup coverage and online discussions
Unformatted Document Text:  _ Agenda setting and reverse agenda setting Traditionally, agenda setting studies have examined agenda transmission from media coverage to public opinion. However, what if the public agenda influences media agenda in a reverse direction? This notion may damage the general agenda setting theory. In this regard, Shaw and McCombs (1977) conducted their Charlotte study with the same respondents at different time periods before and after media coverage of 1972 presidential election campaign. They found more significant correlations between media coverage and a post-coverage survey than between media coverage and a pre-coverage survey. It affirmed the traditional agenda setting effect, not the reverse agenda setting effects. However, Neuman and Fryling’s (1985) study produced a different result. They compared national media coverage of 10 prominent issues in the 1970s and public concerns about the issues as they were measured by the Gallup polls. Interactive feedback (two-way effect) between the media and public was found in the study. In fact, there has little evidence on the existence of reverse agenda setting effects. Nevertheless, most agenda setting studies have ignored the plausible reverse agenda setting effect. Behr and Iyengar (1985) criticized this trend in agenda setting studies: Agenda-setting researchers have generally ignored the critical question of causality. It is taken for granted that news coverage is the driving force and that agenda setting is a unidirectional or recursive process. The possibility of a feedback effect, namely, that public concern itself spawns news coverage, is

Authors: Lee, Jong Hyuk. and Choi, Yun Jung.
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Agenda setting and reverse agenda setting
Traditionally, agenda setting studies have examined agenda transmission from
media coverage to public opinion. However, what if the public agenda influences media
agenda in a reverse direction? This notion may damage the general agenda setting
theory.
In this regard, Shaw and McCombs (1977) conducted their Charlotte study with
the same respondents at different time periods before and after media coverage of 1972
presidential election campaign. They found more significant correlations between media
coverage and a post-coverage survey than between media coverage and a pre-coverage
survey. It affirmed the traditional agenda setting effect, not the reverse agenda setting
effects. However, Neuman and Fryling’s (1985) study produced a different result. They
compared national media coverage of 10 prominent issues in the 1970s and public
concerns about the issues as they were measured by the Gallup polls. Interactive
feedback (two-way effect) between the media and public was found in the study.
In fact, there has little evidence on the existence of reverse agenda setting effects.
Nevertheless, most agenda setting studies have ignored the plausible reverse agenda
setting effect. Behr and Iyengar (1985) criticized this trend in agenda setting studies:
Agenda-setting researchers have generally ignored the critical question of
causality. It is taken for granted that news coverage is the driving force and
that agenda setting is a unidirectional or recursive process. The possibility of a
feedback effect, namely, that public concern itself spawns news coverage, is


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