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Agenda Setting Effects on Online Users: The analysis of the World Cup coverage and online discussions
Unformatted Document Text:  ` ignored. (p. 40) Smith (1987), in this light, attempted to examine the causal direction among variables – media coverage, public concerns, and public evaluations of government service regarding community issues. The conclusion was fairly complicated: Media coverage and public concerns influenced each other in a two-way reciprocal relationship, media coverage influenced public evaluation, and public evaluation influenced public concerns. There have been few attempts to explain why certain causal directions in agenda setting occur. Brosius and Keppliner (1990) tried to link this question to the nature of issues and types of coverage. They examined a causal direction between television coverage and problem awareness of the public on 16 different issues. According to their explanation, traditional agenda setting effects occurred when media coverage of an issue was intense (i.e., more than 30 items per month on the average) and when relative variation was large. It applied to issues such as health care system, energy supply, environmental protection, and defense. On the other hand, reverse agenda setting effect was found when media coverage of an issue increased or decreased steadily for a long term with little variation. Issues such as pension and public security showed reverse agenda setting effects. The causal direction in agenda setting was also examined with the topic of presidents’ union of state speeches. Wanta, Stephenson, Turk and McCombs (1989) divided media coverage of presidents’ speech according to two different time periods: pre-speech and post-speech. President Nixson’s (1970) speech showed only traditional agenda setting effects whereas president Carter’s (1978) speech showed only reverse

Authors: Lee, Jong Hyuk. and Choi, Yun Jung.
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`
ignored. (p. 40)
Smith (1987), in this light, attempted to examine the causal direction among
variables – media coverage, public concerns, and public evaluations of government
service regarding community issues. The conclusion was fairly complicated: Media
coverage and public concerns influenced each other in a two-way reciprocal relationship,
media coverage influenced public evaluation, and public evaluation influenced public
concerns.
There have been few attempts to explain why certain causal directions in agenda
setting occur. Brosius and Keppliner (1990) tried to link this question to the nature of
issues and types of coverage. They examined a causal direction between television
coverage and problem awareness of the public on 16 different issues. According to their
explanation, traditional agenda setting effects occurred when media coverage of an issue
was intense (i.e., more than 30 items per month on the average) and when relative
variation was large. It applied to issues such as health care system, energy supply,
environmental protection, and defense. On the other hand, reverse agenda setting effect
was found when media coverage of an issue increased or decreased steadily for a long
term with little variation. Issues such as pension and public security showed reverse
agenda setting effects.
The causal direction in agenda setting was also examined with the topic of
presidents’ union of state speeches. Wanta, Stephenson, Turk and McCombs (1989)
divided media coverage of presidents’ speech according to two different time periods:
pre-speech and post-speech. President Nixson’s (1970) speech showed only traditional
agenda setting effects whereas president Carter’s (1978) speech showed only reverse


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