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Resonance as Mediator of Prime-Time Messages about Smoking
Unformatted Document Text:  Resonance as Mediator of Messages 9 Identification and parasocial interaction with the protagonist were measured in the posttest instrument. Using five Likert-type items from previous research, the identification scale measured level of agreement that (with regard to the protagonist) the subject was working toward similar goals, shared similar values, had a lot in common, found the protagonist easy to identify with, and that the protagonist had problems similar to those of the subject (Cheney, 1983; Green, 1990). Cronbach’s reliability coefficient was .90. Using seven Likert-type items from previous research, the parasocial interaction scale measured level of agreement that the subject missed seeing the protagonist when the program was not aired, the protagonist made the subject feel comfortable, the protagonist keeps the subject company, the subject liked comparing ideas with those of the protagonist, liked hearing the voice of the protagonist, liked making remarks to the protagonist when she was on screen, and would like to meet the protagonist in person (Auter, 1992; Cole & Leets, 1999; Green, 1990; Rubin, Perse, & Powell, 1985). Cronbach’s reliability coefficient was .87. Independent-sample t-tests were used to analyze differences in anti-smoking attitudes between treatment conditions and differences between smokers and non- smokers within each treatment condition. Paired-sample t-tests were used to analyze changes between pretest and posttest tobacco attitudes. Results Initial analysis indicated no significant posttest differences between the pro- smoking glamour treatment and the anti-smoking humor treatment with regard to attitudes toward smoking and smokers (P > .05). Further, attitude change scores from pretest to posttest measures did not differ significantly for the two treatment groups (P > .05). However, significant differences in anti-smoking attitudes were found when the smoking background of subjects was included in the analysis (see Table 1). For the pro- smoking glamour treatment, subjects with non-smoking backgrounds had significantly

Authors: Lauzen, Martha. and Dozier, David.
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Resonance as Mediator of Messages 9
Identification and parasocial interaction with the protagonist were measured in the
posttest instrument. Using five Likert-type items from previous research, the
identification scale measured level of agreement that (with regard to the protagonist) the
subject was working toward similar goals, shared similar values, had a lot in common,
found the protagonist easy to identify with, and that the protagonist had problems similar
to those of the subject (Cheney, 1983; Green, 1990).
Cronbach’s reliability coefficient
was .90. Using seven Likert-type items from previous research, the parasocial interaction
scale measured level of agreement that the subject missed seeing the protagonist when the
program was not aired, the protagonist made the subject feel comfortable, the protagonist
keeps the subject company, the subject liked comparing ideas with those of the
protagonist, liked hearing the voice of the protagonist, liked making remarks to the
protagonist when she was on screen, and would like to meet the protagonist in person
(Auter, 1992; Cole & Leets, 1999; Green, 1990; Rubin, Perse, & Powell, 1985).
Cronbach’s reliability coefficient was .87.
Independent-sample t-tests were used to analyze differences in anti-smoking
attitudes between treatment conditions and differences between smokers and non-
smokers within each treatment condition. Paired-sample t-tests were used to analyze
changes between pretest and posttest tobacco attitudes.
Results
Initial analysis indicated no significant posttest differences between the pro-
smoking glamour treatment and the anti-smoking humor treatment with regard to
attitudes toward smoking and smokers (P > .05). Further, attitude change scores from
pretest to posttest measures did not differ significantly for the two treatment groups (P >
.05).
However, significant differences in anti-smoking attitudes were found when the
smoking background of subjects was included in the analysis (see Table 1). For the pro-
smoking glamour treatment, subjects with non-smoking backgrounds had significantly


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