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Framing Problems in Crisis Negotiation: Reframing in the Case of Waco
Unformatted Document Text:  Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 16 Variations to Pomerantz’s (1984) preference structures have been shown in different contexts such as letter writing (Mulkay, 1985), computer-mediated discussion groups (Baym, 1996), and radio conversation (Kuo, 1994). In her study of preference structures in disputes, Kotthoff (1993) argued that preference structures are influenced by genre (i.e., type of conversation, such as disputes), institutional setting, and culture. Dissent, for instance is preferred in disputes. If disputants want to be considered rational people responsible for their actions, they are expected to disagree. Also Kotthoff (1993) argues, in the context of dispute, the more an agreement is upgraded, the stronger it is interpreted as a preface toward opposition. Before elaborating on divisive cooperation, consider the following excerpt from the Waco negotiations in light of Kotthoff’s (1993) notion of preferred dissent in disputes. In the excerpt below, the negotiator, John Cox, and Korsh have been talking about the HRT’s activity pressuring Koresh and his followers to come out. Excerpt 3 – Day 22 – tape 148 – line 352-366 (JC: John Cox & DK: David Koresh) DK: If they want to push they can push. Remember what I've shown you in 352 Scripture? They're going to bring their own judgment upon ‘em. 353 JC: Well there's just a lot of losers if that happens [isn't there? 354 DK: [They say they say= 355 JC: =We can all be winners. 356 DK: We can if we're wise. Be wise ye king >be instructed ye judges of the 357 earth?< 358 JC: You can be a winner? and we can be a winner [and everybody in there can 359 be a winner. 360 DK: [I am the winner. I am the 361 winner. I want you [to win with me. 362 JC: [Well if if somebody does something precipitously 363 there are going to be winners and there are going to be losers= 364 DK: =Exactly 365 JC: And that's not necessary is it 366

Authors: Agne, Robert.
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Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 16
Variations to Pomerantz’s (1984) preference structures have been shown in different
contexts such as letter writing (Mulkay, 1985), computer-mediated discussion groups (Baym,
1996), and radio conversation (Kuo, 1994). In her study of preference structures in disputes,
Kotthoff (1993) argued that preference structures are influenced by genre (i.e., type of
conversation, such as disputes), institutional setting, and culture. Dissent, for instance is
preferred in disputes. If disputants want to be considered rational people responsible for their
actions, they are expected to disagree. Also Kotthoff (1993) argues, in the context of dispute, the
more an agreement is upgraded, the stronger it is interpreted as a preface toward opposition.
Before elaborating on divisive cooperation, consider the following excerpt from the
Waco negotiations in light of Kotthoff’s (1993) notion of preferred dissent in disputes. In the
excerpt below, the negotiator, John Cox, and Korsh have been talking about the HRT’s activity
pressuring Koresh and his followers to come out.
Excerpt 3 – Day 22 – tape 148 – line 352-366 (JC: John Cox & DK: David Koresh)
DK:
If they want to push they can push. Remember what I've shown you in
352
Scripture? They're going to bring their own judgment upon ‘em.
353
JC:
Well there's just a lot of losers if that happens [isn't there?
354
DK:
[They
say they say=
355
JC:
=We can all be winners.
356
DK: We
can if we're wise. Be wise ye king >be instructed ye judges of the
357
earth?<
358
JC:
You can be a winner? and we can be a winner [and everybody in there can
359
be a winner.
360
DK:
[I am the winner. I am the
361
winner. I want you [to win with me.
362
JC:
[Well if if somebody does something precipitously
363
there are going to be winners and there are going to be losers=
364
DK: =Exactly
365
JC:
And that's not necessary is it
366


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