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Framing Problems in Crisis Negotiation: Reframing in the Case of Waco
Unformatted Document Text:  Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 17 In this excerpt vocal emphasis is used to upgrade agreement and act as a preface toward disagreement; though disagreement seems to have an implicit quality that Kotthoff (1993) does not describe. In line 357 for instance, Koresh’s emphasis on “can” in “We can” slightly upgrades Cox’s, “We can all be winners” (line 356). However, Koresh restrict his agreement to apply only to those who are wise, specifically the “kings and judges of the earth” (line 357-358) as identified in Psalms 2:10 (“Be wise now therefore, o ye kings: be instructed ye judges of the earth”). Koresh’s restriction on his perspective is not an explicit disagreement as Kotthoff (1993) describes. Dissent is implied as “kings” and “judges” could refer to the FBI decision makers responsible fore the tank movements that Koresh is so strongly against. In Psalms 2 the author 6 threatens the enemies of God and his kngdom, promises that God will be the head of the kingdom, advises the leaders of the world to adhere to His interests (Henry, 1991). In lines 361-362 Koresh says, “I am the winner” twice and emphasizes “am” each time. Here he upgrades more strongly Cox’s “and everybody in there can be a winner.” Even though Koresh is speaking for himself by saying “I am the winner” instead of his group by saying “we are the winners,” he could still be seen as agreeing with Cox and upgrading his assessment. The subsequent disagreement, “I want you to win with me” (line 362), has an emphasis that matches the strength of “I am the winner,” but it is still implied. In lines 359-360 (“You can be a winner? And we can be a winner and everybody in there can be a winner.”) Cox has established sides and claims that both sides can win. Saying, “I want you to win with me” and emphasizing with highlights the importance of choosing sides, thereby implying disagreement with the view that both sides can win. Koresh’s “Exactly” (line 365) strongly agrees with Cox’s statement about “winners” and “losers” in lines 363-364. Given his previous agreements and disagreements about winners in

Authors: Agne, Robert.
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Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 17
In this excerpt vocal emphasis is used to upgrade agreement and act as a preface toward
disagreement; though disagreement seems to have an implicit quality that Kotthoff (1993) does
not describe. In line 357 for instance, Koresh’s emphasis on “can” in “We can” slightly
upgrades Cox’s, “We can all be winners” (line 356). However, Koresh restrict his agreement to
apply only to those who are wise, specifically the “kings and judges of the earth” (line 357-358)
as identified in Psalms 2:10 (“Be wise now therefore, o ye kings: be instructed ye judges of the
earth”). Koresh’s restriction on his perspective is not an explicit disagreement as Kotthoff
(1993) describes. Dissent is implied as “kings” and “judges” could refer to the FBI decision
makers responsible fore the tank movements that Koresh is so strongly against. In Psalms 2 the
author
6
threatens the enemies of God and his kngdom, promises that God will be the head of the
kingdom, advises the leaders of the world to adhere to His interests (Henry, 1991).
In lines 361-362 Koresh says, “I am the winner” twice and emphasizes “am” each time.
Here he upgrades more strongly Cox’s “and everybody in there can be a winner.” Even though
Koresh is speaking for himself by saying “I am the winner” instead of his group by saying “we
are the winners,” he could still be seen as agreeing with Cox and upgrading his assessment. The
subsequent disagreement, “I want you to win with me” (line 362), has an emphasis that matches
the strength of “I am the winner,” but it is still implied. In lines 359-360 (“You can be a winner?
And we can be a winner and everybody in there can be a winner.”) Cox has established sides and
claims that both sides can win. Saying, “I want you to win with me” and emphasizing with
highlights the importance of choosing sides, thereby implying disagreement with the view that
both sides can win.
Koresh’s “Exactly” (line 365) strongly agrees with Cox’s statement about “winners” and
“losers” in lines 363-364. Given his previous agreements and disagreements about winners in


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