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Framing Problems in Crisis Negotiation: Reframing in the Case of Waco
Unformatted Document Text:  Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 18 lines 357-358, “Exactly” holds a completely unspoken disagreement. That is, Cox says, “there are going to be winners and there are going to be losers,” he does not specify who the anticipated winners and losers are. “Exactly” could be seen as simultaneously agreeing with Cox, but also disagreeing with his assumed assignments of who the winners and losers are. Vocal emphasis and mimicry in divisive cooperation Preferred and dispreferred responses in agreement and disagreement primarily apply to assessment (Pomerantz, 1984). In the Waco negotiations, the dispute involved more than just an assessment of the world. Directives were equally prevalent since the negotiators worked toward getting Koresh to do something. The way Koresh responded to directives was particularly troublesome because, like the above exchange in which he both agreed and disagreed, he showed both cooperation and dissent. The following excerpt from day 3 of the negotiations, a few hours after Koresh decided not to come out of the compound as planned, shows this. Excerpt 4 – Day 3 – tape 21 – lines 510-517 (HG: Henry Garcia & DK: David Koresh) HG: Okay. I need to know are you going to live up to your promise. What are 510 you planning to do. [Please tell me that. 511 DK: [Well? See verse. Look. Let me explain. See in verse 512 two? 513 HG: Yes or no. Please tell me what you're going to do. [Please 514 DK: [I am trying. Please 515 look at verse two of Nahum. [In it 516 HG: [Let's not talk in those terms please. 517 Directives in this exchange pertain to what Koresh is saying he plans to do. Garcia’s questions are both yes/no questions as well as open-ended questions. “I need to know are you going to live up to your promise” (line 510) is a yes/no question, but “what are you going to do” (line 510) could be viewed as requiring a hashing out of more complex intentions to be answered adequately. Garcia’s “Yes or no” (line 514) could be seen as highlighting the first question, “are

Authors: Agne, Robert.
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Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 18
lines 357-358, “Exactly” holds a completely unspoken disagreement. That is, Cox says, “there
are going to be winners and there are going to be losers,” he does not specify who the anticipated
winners and losers are. “Exactly” could be seen as simultaneously agreeing with Cox, but also
disagreeing with his assumed assignments of who the winners and losers are.
Vocal emphasis and mimicry in divisive cooperation
Preferred and dispreferred responses in agreement and disagreement primarily apply to
assessment (Pomerantz, 1984). In the Waco negotiations, the dispute involved more than just an
assessment of the world. Directives were equally prevalent since the negotiators worked toward
getting Koresh to do something. The way Koresh responded to directives was particularly
troublesome because, like the above exchange in which he both agreed and disagreed, he showed
both cooperation and dissent. The following excerpt from day 3 of the negotiations, a few hours
after Koresh decided not to come out of the compound as planned, shows this.
Excerpt 4 – Day 3 – tape 21 – lines 510-517 (HG: Henry Garcia & DK: David Koresh)
HG:
Okay. I need to know are you going to live up to your promise. What are
510
you planning to do. [Please tell me that.
511
DK:
[Well? See verse. Look. Let me explain. See in verse
512
two?
513
HG:
Yes or no. Please tell me what you're going to do. [Please
514
DK:
[I am trying. Please
515
look at verse two of Nahum. [In it
516
HG:
[Let's not talk in those terms please.
517
Directives in this exchange pertain to what Koresh is saying he plans to do. Garcia’s questions
are both yes/no questions as well as open-ended questions. “I need to know are you going to live
up to your promise” (line 510) is a yes/no question, but “what are you going to do” (line 510)
could be viewed as requiring a hashing out of more complex intentions to be answered
adequately. Garcia’s “Yes or no” (line 514) could be seen as highlighting the first question, “are


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