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Framing Problems in Crisis Negotiation: Reframing in the Case of Waco
Unformatted Document Text:  Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 34 8 “Misreading” a frame and a “correct” frame are terms Goffman (1974) uses. I take these terms not to be evaluative, but rather analytically relative to each other. The “correct” frame is taken to be the initial frame that is examined as either read and followed or misread and therefore reframed. I should emphasize here that “cornering” and “trapping” are described as an interactional quality as opposed to the quality of a deliberate move that “cornering” and “frame trapping” imply. Here, the character of the interaction was cornering or trapping for one of the interactants (i.e., the negotiator). 9 Koresh often went on to explain that if the scholars could prove him wrong, then his claim to be the Lamb was false, thereby giving him no religious reason to stand his ground to stay in the compound. 10 This challenge of showing where the third Seal involves more than just identifying them in Rev 6: 5-6 which says: 5 And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. 6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine. The challenge involves showing in the Old Testament where the third Seal is also discussed. Earlier in the negotiations Koresh used Ezekiel 27- 28, Psalms 83, and Zechariah 14:1 to explain the third Seal this way.

Authors: Agne, Robert.
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Reframing in the Waco Negotiations 34
8
“Misreading” a frame and a “correct” frame are terms Goffman (1974) uses. I take these terms not to be
evaluative, but rather analytically relative to each other. The “correct” frame is taken to be the initial frame that is
examined as either read and followed or misread and therefore reframed.
I should emphasize here that “cornering” and “trapping” are described as an interactional quality as
opposed to the quality of a deliberate move that “cornering” and “frame trapping” imply. Here, the character of the
interaction was cornering or trapping for one of the interactants (i.e., the negotiator).
9
Koresh often went on to explain that if the scholars could prove him wrong, then his claim to be the Lamb was
false, thereby giving him no religious reason to stand his ground to stay in the compound.
10
This challenge of showing where the third Seal involves more than just identifying them in Rev 6: 5-6 which says:
5 And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo
a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand.
6 And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three
measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

The challenge involves showing in the Old Testament where the third Seal is also discussed. Earlier in the
negotiations Koresh used Ezekiel 27- 28, Psalms 83, and Zechariah 14:1 to explain the third Seal this way.


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