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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 10 Likewise, the most serious difference in cognition among people occurs when the cognitive activities are made on association with a different consideration of an issue. In other words, difference in point of view or story angle in a news frame may form completely different opinions having little room for a compromise. Suppose two debates happening separately on Bush’s suggestion of an increase in defense budget, where two persons (let’s say A and B) are in a dispute. In one debate, A supports for the plan because of its potential positive effects on national economy, whereas B objects it considering unfavorable responses from foreign countries. In the other debate, A supports the suggestion with the same reason as earlier mentioned, B, however, objects it with different reason of its potential negative effects on national economy. Presumably, the former debate is more difficult to induce a substantive result than the other because the attitude is associated with different consideration. The other kind of framing research refers to study changes in option, evaluation, or opinion by varying presentation of nearly equivalent options to audience: the research of variation effects. It assumes that alternative frames present choice problems, equivalent in substantive content, with subtle difference in descriptive manner, meanwhile the selected consideration of both news frames are same. Typically, Kahneman and Tversky (1979, Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) demonstrated that people showed a risk aversion or a risk-seeking preference in choice behavior under uncertain circumstances, depending on whether a problem was presented in a gaining (positive) or a losing (negative) frame. A frame provides a reference point from which a choice problem is represented to the subjects (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). For instance, when given a choice between a sure gain of something and an uncertain but possibly larger gain (with equal or larger expected value), the majority of people prefer the sure gain alternative to the uncertain gamble  the tendency called risk aversion. However, when the

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 10
Likewise, the most serious difference in cognition among people occurs when the
cognitive activities are made on association with a different consideration of an issue. In other
words, difference in point of view or story angle in a news frame may form completely different
opinions having little room for a compromise. Suppose two debates happening separately on
Bush’s suggestion of an increase in defense budget, where two persons (let’s say A and B) are in
a dispute. In one debate, A supports for the plan because of its potential positive effects on
national economy, whereas B objects it considering unfavorable responses from foreign
countries. In the other debate, A supports the suggestion with the same reason as earlier
mentioned, B, however, objects it with different reason of its potential negative effects on
national economy. Presumably, the former debate is more difficult to induce a substantive result
than the other because the attitude is associated with different consideration.
The other kind of framing research refers to study changes in option, evaluation, or
opinion by varying presentation of nearly equivalent options to audience: the research of
variation effects. It assumes that alternative frames present choice problems, equivalent in
substantive content, with subtle difference in descriptive manner, meanwhile the selected
consideration of both news frames are same. Typically, Kahneman and Tversky (1979, Tversky
& Kahneman, 1981) demonstrated that people showed a risk aversion or a risk-seeking
preference in choice behavior under uncertain circumstances, depending on whether a problem
was presented in a gaining (positive) or a losing (negative) frame. A frame provides a reference
point from which a choice problem is represented to the subjects (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981).
For instance, when given a choice between a sure gain of something and an uncertain but
possibly larger gain (with equal or larger expected value), the majority of people prefer the sure
gain alternative to the uncertain gamble
the tendency called risk aversion. However, when the


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