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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 11 logically equivalent choices are presented from a losing perspective, the majority of people tend to choose the risky gamble over the sure loss alternative  risk seeking (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). This framing effect was taken as an indication of both a violation of the logical consistency or invariance principle of rational decision-making and evidence showing that people are logically inconsistent in their choice behavior (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). The differences in theoretical implications between the research of consideration-setting effects and variation effects are evident in that: The impact of frames on “knowledge activation” and “spreading activation” (Domke, Shah, & Wackman1998; Shah & Domke, 1996; Price & Tewksvury, 1997a, 1997b) were mainly studied in the research of consideration-setting effects rather than the variation effects. Because consideration-setting serves to limit and direct the things audience consider when they think about issues, audiences perceptions and interpretations of a political issue are differentiated depending on what was selected as a consideration (Price, Tewksbury, & Powers, 1997b; Rhee, 1997; Tewksbury, Jones, Peske, Raymond, & Vig 2000; Valentino, Buhr, & Beckmann, 2001; Valkenburg, Semetko, & De Vresse, 1999). Methodologically, therefore, “thought list procedure” (Cacioppo & Petty, 1981) or open-ended was mostly used to test the presence of the effects of news frames in the domain of the research on consideration-setting. The research of variation effects, on the other hand, have a purpose to investigate the effects of the subtle alteration in a descriptive manner on audiences evaluation, opinion, and decision-making, rather than general understanding an issue. Taken altogether, they don’t assume that such alternative frames activate different knowledge leading to different thought, rather they are suspicious of perceptual illusion caused by changes in reference points or irrationality (Fleishman, 1988; Kahneman & Tversky, 1984, Roskos-Ewoldsen, Copeland, &

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 11
logically equivalent choices are presented from a losing perspective, the majority of people tend
to choose the risky gamble over the sure loss alternative
risk seeking
(Tversky & Kahneman,
1981). This framing effect was taken as an indication of both a violation of the logical
consistency or invariance principle of rational decision-making and evidence showing that
people are logically inconsistent in their choice behavior (Tversky & Kahneman, 1981).
The differences in theoretical implications between the research of consideration-setting
effects and variation effects are evident in that: The impact of frames on “knowledge activation”
and “spreading activation” (Domke, Shah, & Wackman1998; Shah & Domke, 1996; Price &
Tewksvury, 1997a, 1997b) were mainly studied in the research of consideration-setting effects
rather than the variation effects. Because consideration-setting serves to limit and direct the
things audience consider when they think about issues, audiences perceptions and interpretations
of a political issue are differentiated depending on what was selected as a consideration (Price,
Tewksbury, & Powers, 1997b; Rhee, 1997; Tewksbury, Jones, Peske, Raymond, & Vig 2000;
Valentino, Buhr, & Beckmann, 2001; Valkenburg, Semetko, & De Vresse, 1999).
Methodologically, therefore, “thought list procedure” (Cacioppo & Petty, 1981) or open-ended
was mostly used to test the presence of the effects of news frames in the domain of the research
on consideration-setting.
The research of variation effects, on the other hand, have a purpose to investigate the
effects of the subtle alteration in a descriptive manner on audiences evaluation, opinion, and
decision-making, rather than general understanding an issue. Taken altogether, they don’t
assume that such alternative frames activate different knowledge leading to different thought,
rather they are suspicious of perceptual illusion caused by changes in reference points or
irrationality (Fleishman, 1988; Kahneman & Tversky, 1984, Roskos-Ewoldsen, Copeland, &


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