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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 12 Hoffman, 1995) because the substantive content in each option is nearly equivalent or identical. Therefore, in this type of research, the preference reversals in evaluation and decision-making resting on framing were focused on, methodologically. As I know on, there is no evidence indicating that such frames adopting variation as a method of framing led to different thoughts, although difference in frames (i.e., saving vs. losing) used by subjects on Asian disease problem was reported (Maule, 1989): The data was obtained by asking participants to say aloud rationale or justifying thoughts for choice whist solving the problem (i.e., by forcing a particular trains of thoughts) not by thought listing technique. The simplest way, not perfect though, to distinguish between these two types of framing research is to look at the headline. In the manipulation of news story, it can be regarded as the research of consideration-setting effects if the content of headline is quite different. If the headline is identical, the research can be seen dealing with variation effects, because the headline is the most powerful framing device of the syntactical structure (Pan & Kosicki, 1993). It narrows the range of likely interpretations and invokes particular ideas and concepts even before a person has begun to read the story. Exploiting Preexisting Knowledge Structure versus Constructing Frame-relevant Knowledge Structure In this part, I intend to suggest another two general types of framing research based on the goal of framing. The one refers to the research using frames that intend to exploit already built-in knowledge structure in individuals. In this frame, substantive social beliefs, ethic, stereotypes, values, and so on (putting simply, social values) are used as a device for specific meaning construction. For journalists and readers, a social value guides the selection, interpretation, and evaluation of news information by slotting the new into familiar categories

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 12
Hoffman, 1995) because the substantive content in each option is nearly equivalent or identical.
Therefore, in this type of research, the preference reversals in evaluation and decision-making
resting on framing were focused on, methodologically. As I know on, there is no evidence
indicating that such frames adopting variation as a method of framing led to different thoughts,
although difference in frames (i.e., saving vs. losing) used by subjects on Asian disease problem
was reported (Maule, 1989): The data was obtained by asking participants to say aloud rationale
or justifying thoughts for choice whist solving the problem (i.e., by forcing a particular trains of
thoughts) not by thought listing technique.
The simplest way, not perfect though, to distinguish between these two types of framing
research is to look at the headline. In the manipulation of news story, it can be regarded as the
research of consideration-setting effects if the content of headline is quite different. If the
headline is identical, the research can be seen dealing with variation effects, because the headline
is the most powerful framing device of the syntactical structure (Pan & Kosicki, 1993). It
narrows the range of likely interpretations and invokes particular ideas and concepts even before
a person has begun to read the story.
Exploiting Preexisting Knowledge Structure versus Constructing Frame-relevant Knowledge
Structure
In this part, I intend to suggest another two general types of framing research based on
the goal of framing. The one refers to the research using frames that intend to exploit already
built-in knowledge structure in individuals. In this frame, substantive social beliefs, ethic,
stereotypes, values, and so on (putting simply, social values) are used as a device for specific
meaning construction. For journalists and readers, a social value guides the selection,
interpretation, and evaluation of news information by slotting the new into familiar categories


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