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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 14 more likely that the evaluation will be automatically activated from memory upon the individual’s encountering the issue again because the evaluation is leaning on one’s core value that is highly accessible (see, Roskos-Ewoldsen, 1997). By the reason, the impact of frames aiming at taking advantage of preexisting and highly accessible knowledge structure on individuals interpretation of issues can be easily estimated. Hence political elites and journalists construct issues in value terms as a heuristic for the broader public, which often understands social issues not “in their massive detail, but in terms of the values  the value-choices  they present” (Ball-Rokeach & Loges, 1997, p. 14). Edelman (1971), for example, contends that President Lyndon Johnson, in declaring a “war on poverty,” legitimized concerns about social and political equality, raised public expectations of success. Because the term “war”, in my guess, is directly related to social value of “have to win at the any expense of.” Similarly, the reason why the term “America on the attack” or “America on war” was used right after September 11 th terrorism might be explained by the notion, strictly speaking, that was not a war definitely. Overwhelming support for Bush’s bellicose action after the terrorism may, in part, resulted from the social value frames aiming at exploiting the existing knowledge structure. The conceptual differences between frames using a social value or not are evident as follows: A Social value frame is devised to trigger a preexisting and highly accessible knowledge structure to expedite understanding on an issue, then, more importantly, it induces intended evaluation (in political elites’, journalists’ , or interest group’s stance) with ease from audiences. A frame without social values, on the other hand, is made, initially, to establish the issue-relevant knowledge structure to develop a way in which the issue is interpreted and understood. Of course, it cannot be deniable that the latter also influences on evaluations toward an issue, directly or not.

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 14
more likely that the evaluation will be automatically activated from memory upon the
individual’s encountering the issue again because the evaluation is leaning on one’s core value
that is highly accessible (see, Roskos-Ewoldsen, 1997). By the reason, the impact of frames
aiming at taking advantage of preexisting and highly accessible knowledge structure on
individuals interpretation of issues can be easily estimated. Hence political elites and journalists
construct issues in value terms as a heuristic for the broader public, which often understands
social issues not “in their massive detail, but in terms of the values
the value-choices
they
present” (Ball-Rokeach & Loges, 1997, p. 14).
Edelman (1971), for example, contends that President Lyndon Johnson, in declaring a
“war on poverty,” legitimized concerns about social and political equality, raised public
expectations of success. Because the term “war”, in my guess, is directly related to social value
of “have to win at the any expense of.” Similarly, the reason why the term “America on the
attack” or “America on war” was used right after September 11
th
terrorism might be explained by
the notion, strictly speaking, that was not a war definitely. Overwhelming support for Bush’s
bellicose action after the terrorism may, in part, resulted from the social value frames aiming at
exploiting the existing knowledge structure.
The conceptual differences between frames using a social value or not are evident as
follows: A Social value frame is devised to trigger a preexisting and highly accessible knowledge
structure to expedite understanding on an issue, then, more importantly, it induces intended
evaluation (in political elites’, journalists’ , or interest group’s stance) with ease from audiences.
A frame without social values, on the other hand, is made, initially, to establish the issue-relevant
knowledge structure to develop a way in which the issue is interpreted and understood. Of course,
it cannot be deniable that the latter also influences on evaluations toward an issue, directly or not.


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