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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 18 Whether an issue is described in general or in more specific influences on audience’s cognition (Iyengar, 1987; Iyengar, 1991; Iyengar & Simon, 1993; Jacoby, 2000; Roberts, Hite, & Bradley, 1994). When an issue was described in terms of concrete cases or specific events (i.e., episodic frame), viewers assigned responsibility for the problem to the individual while when the issue contains general or abstract information of the context (i.e., thematic frame) responsibility was assigned to society or government (Iyengar, 1987; Iyengar, 1991). Plus, in the case of survey question, inclusion or exclusion of particular concrete information produced significant change on opinion. Roberts, Hite, and Bradley (1994) found that attitudes toward and understanding of progressive taxation were differed resting on questions framed “abstract” or “concrete”. Similarly, differing frames produced considerable changes in the ways in which people respond to a single issue, with systematically lower support for government spending in the “general’ presentation and greater support in the “specific” frame (Jacoby, 2000). Frames that occur commonly in news were identified, including conflict, economic consequences, human impact, and morality frames (Newman, Just, & Crigler, 1992), with responsibility frame was added to in the study by Semetko and Valkenburg (2000). It means that issues are usually related to such considerations to encourage understanding toward the issues, with the consideration-referenced knowledge structure being established. It was demonstrated that differing frames (conflict vs. human interest vs. economic consequence frame) elicited thoughts reflecting the frames (Price, Tewksbury, & powers, 1997b; Valkenburg, Semetko, & De Vreese, 1999). In competing to shape policy, interest groups often play a role to make a particular consideration of an issue selected and salient (Andsager, 2000). Tewksbury, Jones, Peske, Raymond, and Vig (2000) showed that advocacy frames (environment group event vs. industry

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 18
Whether an issue is described in general or in more specific influences on audience’s
cognition (Iyengar, 1987; Iyengar, 1991; Iyengar & Simon, 1993; Jacoby, 2000; Roberts, Hite, &
Bradley, 1994). When an issue was described in terms of concrete cases or specific events (i.e.,
episodic frame), viewers assigned responsibility for the problem to the individual while when the
issue contains general or abstract information of the context (i.e., thematic frame) responsibility
was assigned to society or government (Iyengar, 1987; Iyengar, 1991). Plus, in the case of survey
question, inclusion or exclusion of particular concrete information produced significant change
on opinion. Roberts, Hite, and Bradley (1994) found that attitudes toward and understanding of
progressive taxation were differed resting on questions framed “abstract” or “concrete”.
Similarly, differing frames produced considerable changes in the ways in which people respond
to a single issue, with systematically lower support for government spending in the “general’
presentation and greater support in the “specific” frame (Jacoby, 2000).
Frames that occur commonly in news were identified, including conflict, economic
consequences, human impact, and morality frames (Newman, Just, & Crigler, 1992), with
responsibility frame was added to in the study by Semetko and Valkenburg (2000). It means that
issues are usually related to such considerations to encourage understanding toward the issues,
with the consideration-referenced knowledge structure being established. It was demonstrated
that differing frames (conflict vs. human interest vs. economic consequence frame) elicited
thoughts reflecting the frames (Price, Tewksbury, & powers, 1997b; Valkenburg, Semetko, & De
Vreese, 1999).
In competing to shape policy, interest groups often play a role to make a particular
consideration of an issue selected and salient (Andsager, 2000). Tewksbury, Jones, Peske,
Raymond, and Vig (2000) showed that advocacy frames (environment group event vs. industry


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