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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 20 (Domke, Shah, & Wackman, 1998a, 1998b; Shah & Domke, 1996). Domke, Shah, and Wackman (1998a, p. 304) explains such that “in evaluating a set of candidates, given the centrality of ethical considerations to one’s sense of self, individuals with an ethical interpretation of an issue will first consider each candidate’s position on that issue, which thereby serves as an overriding attribute, shaping the manner in which information is processed while they arrive at a candidate decision.” The Research of Variation Effects Using Frames Aiming at Establishing Issue-relevant Structure In a decision situation, the choice alternatives can be described, or framed, with respect to different reference points, such as gains or losses (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). On the basis of Kahneman and Tversky’s (1979) prospect theory, some scholars investigated the influence of framing of a social dilemma on cooperation. Framing social dilemmas in terms of “giving” or “taking” affected people’s behavior (Brewer & Kramer, 1986; Fleishman, 1988). In some types of dilemma, “people cooperate either by giving some resources (time, money, etc.) or by refraining from taking resources from a common pool” (Fleishman, 1988, p. 164). In take conditions individuals were risk-averse. Taking from a collective good implies a certain gain; people tend to be risk-averse when gains are expected. Thus, people would refrain from taking a lot in order to avoid risking the long-term viability of the public good. In contrast, when a social dilemma is framed in terms of giving, individuals were risk seeking. Giving to a collective good entails a certain loss; people tend to seek risk when losses are involved. Therefore, in a context of giving, people would show diffused responsibility and cooperation (Brewer & Kramer, 1986; Fleishman, 1988). Raghubir & Johar (1999) illustrated how the manner in which the Hong Kong transition is framed (positive vs. negative tome) affects attitudes toward the effect of the transition on

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 20
(Domke, Shah, & Wackman, 1998a, 1998b; Shah & Domke, 1996). Domke, Shah, and
Wackman (1998a, p. 304) explains such that “in evaluating a set of candidates, given the
centrality of ethical considerations to one’s sense of self, individuals with an ethical
interpretation of an issue will first consider each candidate’s position on that issue, which
thereby serves as an overriding attribute, shaping the manner in which information is processed
while they arrive at a candidate decision.”
The Research of Variation Effects Using Frames Aiming at Establishing Issue-relevant Structure
In a decision situation, the choice alternatives can be described, or framed, with respect to
different reference points, such as gains or losses (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). On the basis of
Kahneman and Tversky’s (1979) prospect theory, some scholars investigated the influence of
framing of a social dilemma on cooperation. Framing social dilemmas in terms of “giving” or
“taking” affected people’s behavior (Brewer & Kramer, 1986; Fleishman, 1988). In some types
of dilemma, “people cooperate either by giving some resources (time, money, etc.) or by
refraining from taking resources from a common pool” (Fleishman, 1988, p. 164). In take
conditions individuals were risk-averse. Taking from a collective good implies a certain gain;
people tend to be risk-averse when gains are expected. Thus, people would refrain from taking a
lot in order to avoid risking the long-term viability of the public good. In contrast, when a social
dilemma is framed in terms of giving, individuals were risk seeking. Giving to a collective good
entails a certain loss; people tend to seek risk when losses are involved. Therefore, in a context
of giving, people would show diffused responsibility and cooperation (Brewer & Kramer, 1986;
Fleishman, 1988).
Raghubir & Johar (1999) illustrated how the manner in which the Hong Kong transition
is framed (positive vs. negative tome) affects attitudes toward the effect of the transition on


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