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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 21 Macau and Taiwan. The negative “take over” frame produced less favorable responses when respondents are motivated to hold attitudes perceived as valid (i.e., for attitudes toward one’s own country) but not otherwise. They argued that framing effects occur, in particular, “when the attitude issue is important but attitudes toward it are not well formed and stored in memory” (p. 561). Besides, Roskos-Ewoldsen, Copeland, and Hoffman (1995) tried to replicate the framing effect suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979) using identical experimental design, 2 (certain vs. uncertain) by 2 (positive vs. negative), with political issues being adopted instead of the Asian disease problem. They found that levels of personal involvement are a necessary condition for obtaining framing effects with political advertisements. Suggestions Although many scholars suggested conceptualizations of frame and framing to avoid conceptual ambiguousness, little effort was made to explicate framing research except Scheufele (1999). However, her approach is quite different from mine: While the categorization (media frames vs. individual frames; frames as dependent variables vs. independent variables) was focused on mirroring previous framing studies in Scheufele (1999), the suggested typology in this paper was elicited on the basis of theoretical implications differing across each category to give a consistent and systematic impression on the research falling into each cell. This typology has several merits. First of all, it gives a comprehensive image of framing research, plus demonstrates with ease how each category is connected with and different from. Second, the domain of consideration-setting research among framing seems have some common with second-level agenda-setting, which is dealing with limited attributes of an issue though: So far most second-level agenda-setting research were interested in the attribute of positive or negative

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 21
Macau and Taiwan. The negative “take over” frame produced less favorable responses when
respondents are motivated to hold attitudes perceived as valid (i.e., for attitudes toward one’s
own country) but not otherwise. They argued that framing effects occur, in particular, “when the
attitude issue is important but attitudes toward it are not well formed and stored in memory” (p.
561).
Besides, Roskos-Ewoldsen, Copeland, and Hoffman (1995) tried to replicate the framing
effect suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979) using identical experimental design, 2
(certain vs. uncertain) by 2 (positive vs. negative), with political issues being adopted instead of
the Asian disease problem. They found that levels of personal involvement are a necessary
condition for obtaining framing effects with political advertisements.
Suggestions
Although many scholars suggested conceptualizations of frame and framing to avoid
conceptual ambiguousness, little effort was made to explicate framing research except Scheufele
(1999). However, her approach is quite different from mine: While the categorization (media
frames vs. individual frames; frames as dependent variables vs. independent variables) was
focused on mirroring previous framing studies in Scheufele (1999), the suggested typology in
this paper was elicited on the basis of theoretical implications differing across each category to
give a consistent and systematic impression on the research falling into each cell. This typology
has several merits. First of all, it gives a comprehensive image of framing research, plus
demonstrates with ease how each category is connected with and different from. Second, the
domain of consideration-setting research among framing seems have some common with
second-level agenda-setting, which is dealing with limited attributes of an issue though: So far
most second-level agenda-setting research were interested in the attribute of positive or negative


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