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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 22 description of an issue (McCombs, Lopez-Escobar, & Llamas, 2000; Park & Kosicki, 1995). However, the research area dealing with variation effects seems to have no relation with agenda- setting paradigm. In this paper, I tried to go beyond the metaphorical definitions about framing to show what kinds of theoretical research domains have been in the research on framing by suggesting a typology basing on two conceptual dimensions: focal method by which framing occur (selection vs. variation) and the goal of framing (exploiting a preexisting knowledge structure vs. establishing a frame-relevant knowledge structure selection versus variation and the frames intended to exploit the preexisting knowledge structure versus to establish a frame-relevant knowledge structure). Resting on this typology, several suggestions for future study might be notable. First, several theoretical explanations for framing effects, for example, accessibility bias (Domke & Shah, 1996; Domke, Shah, & Wackman, 1998a, 1998b; Iyenger, 1991, 1993), applicability effect (Price, Tewksbury, & Powers, 1997a, 1997b; Tewksbury, Jones, Peske, Raymond, & Vig, 2000) or belief importance change (Nelson, Clawson, & Oxley, 1997; Nelson & Oxley, 1999) should be proved whether the notions are still effective across all cells or limited at a specific cell. Second, criterion variables unique for each cell should be checked. It means that the criterions including strength of attitudes, activated thoughts, memory, decision-making, short-term or long-term persuasion, and so on, need to be inspected whether they have same weight across cells or different imports at particular cell. Finally, efforts should be paid to find out that there exist category-specific frames affecting audiences’ cognition in a significant way. Classifying previous framing studies based on this typology was not a clear-cut task. Certain studies were ambiguous in their manipulation of stimulus. Anyway, I hope this typology

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 22
description of an issue (McCombs, Lopez-Escobar, & Llamas, 2000; Park & Kosicki, 1995).
However, the research area dealing with variation effects seems to have no relation with agenda-
setting paradigm.
In this paper, I tried to go beyond the metaphorical definitions about framing to show
what kinds of theoretical research domains have been in the research on framing by suggesting a
typology basing on two conceptual dimensions: focal method by which framing occur (selection
vs. variation) and the goal of framing (exploiting a preexisting knowledge structure vs.
establishing a frame-relevant knowledge structure selection versus variation and the frames
intended to exploit the preexisting knowledge structure versus to establish a frame-relevant
knowledge structure). Resting on this typology, several suggestions for future study might be
notable.
First, several theoretical explanations for framing effects, for example, accessibility bias
(Domke & Shah, 1996; Domke, Shah, & Wackman, 1998a, 1998b; Iyenger, 1991, 1993),
applicability effect (Price, Tewksbury, & Powers, 1997a, 1997b; Tewksbury, Jones, Peske,
Raymond, & Vig, 2000) or belief importance change (Nelson, Clawson, & Oxley, 1997; Nelson
& Oxley, 1999) should be proved whether the notions are still effective across all cells or limited
at a specific cell. Second, criterion variables unique for each cell should be checked. It means
that the criterions including strength of attitudes, activated thoughts, memory, decision-making,
short-term or long-term persuasion, and so on, need to be inspected whether they have same
weight across cells or different imports at particular cell. Finally, efforts should be paid to find
out that there exist category-specific frames affecting audiences’ cognition in a significant way.
Classifying previous framing studies based on this typology was not a clear-cut task.
Certain studies were ambiguous in their manipulation of stimulus. Anyway, I hope this typology


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