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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 4 Drawing on the study of Kahneman and Tversky (1982, 1984), Iyengar (1991, p.11) defined framing, at the most general level, “as subtle alterations in the statement or presentation of judgment and choice problems,” and the term framing effects “as changes in decision outcomes resulting from these alterations”. However, the definition which followed Kahneman and Tversky (1984)’s looks not much related to the real works of Iyengar (1990, 1991, 1993). The classification of news frames as an episodic vs. thematic seems to be standing not on the “subtle alteration” in the presentation of equivalent options, rather, but on a different consideration which is functioning as an angle to command an issue. Kahneman and Tversky (1982, 1984) demonstrated that by restating the consequences of the alternative programs in terms of potential losses ("will die") rather than potential gains ("will be saved"), the structure of preferences was reversed even though the choices were identical, which are known as framing effects referring to dramatic changes in decision-making associated with different presentation. Whereas, Iyengar (1990, 1991, 1993) showed that quite different opinion (i.e., attribution of responsibility) was elicited resting on the consideration selected and made salient in the news frames. To be detail, for example, suppose an issue: Bush’s plan of an increase in defense budget. A news frame, in any case, is likely to organized based on two criterions: The one is that which of the political considerations should be selected and made dominant (e.g., among the impact on national economy, responses of foreign countries, general budget problems, or the lobby of defense industry), and the other is that, how the political consideration should described or presented to obtain some intended impact on audiences on the assumption that it is inevitable to choose the consideration as a story angle. The latter is somewhat analogous to the Kahneman and Tversky’s studies, on the other hand, the works of Iyengar (1990, 1991, 1993) is similar to the former. The classification of news stories into

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 4
Drawing on the study of Kahneman and Tversky (1982, 1984), Iyengar (1991, p.11)
defined framing, at the most general level, “as subtle alterations in the statement or presentation
of judgment and choice problems,” and the term framing effects “as changes in decision
outcomes resulting from these alterations”. However, the definition which followed Kahneman
and Tversky (1984)’s looks not much related to the real works of Iyengar (1990, 1991, 1993).
The classification of news frames as an episodic vs. thematic seems to be standing not on the
“subtle alteration” in the presentation of equivalent options, rather, but on a different
consideration which is functioning as an angle to command an issue.
Kahneman and Tversky (1982, 1984) demonstrated that by restating the consequences of
the alternative programs in terms of potential losses ("will die") rather than potential gains ("will
be saved"), the structure of preferences was reversed even though the choices were identical,
which are known as framing effects referring to dramatic changes in decision-making associated
with different presentation. Whereas, Iyengar (1990, 1991, 1993) showed that quite different
opinion (i.e., attribution of responsibility) was elicited resting on the consideration selected and
made salient in the news frames. To be detail, for example, suppose an issue: Bush’s plan of an
increase in defense budget. A news frame, in any case, is likely to organized based on two
criterions: The one is that which of the political considerations should be selected and made
dominant (e.g., among the impact on national economy, responses of foreign countries, general
budget problems, or the lobby of defense industry), and the other is that, how the political
consideration should described or presented to obtain some intended impact on audiences on the
assumption that it is inevitable to choose the consideration as a story angle. The latter is
somewhat analogous to the Kahneman and Tversky’s studies, on the other hand, the works of
Iyengar (1990, 1991, 1993) is similar to the former. The classification of news stories into


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