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A Typology of Framing Research: It needs to be tangible
Unformatted Document Text:  A Typology of Framing Research-- 8 To make the limit of this typology clear, some points should be mentioned. First of all, assuming that news frames exist at two levels: as mentally stored principles for information processing and characteristics of the news text (Entman, 1991) or media frames versus audience frame (Scheufele, 1999), the subjects of the typology were empirical research investigating the question that how media frames influence readers’ or viewers’ perceptions of certain issues. So to speak, the research studied based on observer’s perspective (Carter, Ruglles, Jackson, & Heffners, 1983) was targeted. Empirical studies but standing on actor’s view were excluded, with an exception of Rhee (1997, because main effect of frames was also illustrated). That is to say, research adopting constructionist approach interested in the way in which individuals interpret the meaning of news frames using their personal experience or prior knowledge in making sense of issues was dropped, for example, such as Gamson (1992) and Iorio, Huxman (1996), and Sotirovic (2000). To suggest a typology of research on framing demonstrating their unique theoretical assumptions and premises, framing research was conceptualized in terms of two dimensions: focal methods by which framing occurs (selection versus variation), and the goal of framing (exploiting existing knowledge structure versus constructing frame-relevant knowledge structure). Selection versus Variation The news media tell stories about political issues using only a narrow range of perspectives (Patterson, 1993) while political issues are inherently ambiguous and characterized by a multiplicity of interpretations and perspectives. The function of news frames is self-evident in this context such that frames can encourage perceiving and thinking about public issues and lead to relatively substantive interpretations. But the concern is that news frames serve to limit

Authors: Choi, Jinmyung.
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A Typology of Framing Research-- 8
To make the limit of this typology clear, some points should be mentioned. First of all,
assuming that news frames exist at two levels: as mentally stored principles for information
processing and characteristics of the news text (Entman, 1991) or media frames versus audience
frame (Scheufele, 1999), the subjects of the typology were empirical research investigating the
question that how media frames influence readers’ or viewers’ perceptions of certain issues. So
to speak, the research studied based on observer’s perspective (Carter, Ruglles, Jackson, &
Heffners, 1983) was targeted. Empirical studies but standing on actor’s view were excluded, with
an exception of Rhee (1997, because main effect of frames was also illustrated). That is to say,
research adopting constructionist approach interested in the way in which individuals interpret
the meaning of news frames using their personal experience or prior knowledge in making sense
of issues was dropped, for example, such as Gamson (1992) and Iorio, Huxman (1996), and
Sotirovic (2000). To suggest a typology of research on framing demonstrating their unique
theoretical assumptions and premises, framing research was conceptualized in terms of two
dimensions: focal methods by which framing occurs (selection versus variation), and the goal of
framing (exploiting existing knowledge structure versus constructing frame-relevant knowledge
structure).
Selection versus Variation
The news media tell stories about political issues using only a narrow range of
perspectives (Patterson, 1993) while political issues are inherently ambiguous and characterized
by a multiplicity of interpretations and perspectives. The function of news frames is self-evident
in this context such that frames can encourage perceiving and thinking about public issues and
lead to relatively substantive interpretations. But the concern is that news frames serve to limit


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