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Factors of Culture Adaptation and Adaptation States in a Multicultural Organization
Unformatted Document Text:  Cultural Adaptation Factors and States 5 Literature Cultural Adaptation Previous literature on adaptation research shows an overwhelming focus on immigrants’ efforts to fit in a host culture. Kim (1988) defines that culture adaptation is “the process of change over time that takes place within individuals who have completed their primary socialization process in one culture and then come into continuous, prolonged first-hand contact with a new and unfamiliar culture” (p. 38). Many factors come into play in such a complex process and these factors influence the result of one’s culture adaptation. For example, Kim (1988) identified the use of mass media and interpersonal interactions with the host culture as important factors in the success of an immigrant’s adaptation. She further argued that while mass media may be helpful in acquiring information or knowledge about the host culture, it is not until one experiences face-to-face interaction with the host culture, that he/she learn about the deep meanings of the culture, and eventually adapt to it. On the other hand, some research stress the stages of adaptation and suggest that immigrants go through ups and downs in the process of trying fit in the second culture. Generally speaking, all individuals who engage in a second culture experience various degrees of cultural shock. Dodd (1991) explained the four stages in the adaptation process. The “eager expectation stage” is where a person prepares for the second culture by learning about it and looking forward to the new life with much anticipation. The second stage is known as the “everything is beautiful stage” in which the person first arrives in the new culture, finding everything to be fresh, and experiencing excitement. The third stage is called the “everything is awful stage”. It typically follows the previous

Authors: Zhong, Mei. and Lee, Suman.
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Cultural Adaptation Factors and States
5
Literature
Cultural Adaptation
Previous literature on adaptation research shows an overwhelming focus on
immigrants’ efforts to fit in a host culture. Kim (1988) defines that culture adaptation is
“the process of change over time that takes place within individuals who have completed
their primary socialization process in one culture and then come into continuous,
prolonged first-hand contact with a new and unfamiliar culture” (p. 38). Many factors
come into play in such a complex process and these factors influence the result of one’s
culture adaptation. For example, Kim (1988) identified the use of mass media and
interpersonal interactions with the host culture as important factors in the success of an
immigrant’s adaptation. She further argued that while mass media may be helpful in
acquiring information or knowledge about the host culture, it is not until one experiences
face-to-face interaction with the host culture, that he/she learn about the deep meanings
of the culture, and eventually adapt to it.
On the other hand, some research stress the stages of adaptation and suggest that
immigrants go through ups and downs in the process of trying fit in the second culture.
Generally speaking, all individuals who engage in a second culture experience various
degrees of cultural shock. Dodd (1991) explained the four stages in the adaptation
process. The “eager expectation stage” is where a person prepares for the second culture
by learning about it and looking forward to the new life with much anticipation. The
second stage is known as the “everything is beautiful stage” in which the person first
arrives in the new culture, finding everything to be fresh, and experiencing excitement.
The third stage is called the “everything is awful stage”. It typically follows the previous


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