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AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEDIA DISPLACEMENT STUDY: SELECTIVE DISPLACEMENT BASED ON THE NEWS CONTENT
Unformatted Document Text:  Media Displacement 6 linked to personal goals, that is, when audiences are dependent on media for goal satisfaction (Ball-Rokeach, Rokeach, & Grube, 1984; Loges & Ball-Rokeach, 1993). The assumption underlying the MSD is that when individuals perceive media to be helpful for goal satisfaction, they would selectively expose themselves to media content and attend more to media messages, increasing the likelihood of processing media messages and affecting personal beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors (Morton & Duck, 2001). Dependency within the MSD framework has been defined as “a relationship in which the capacity of individuals to attain their goals is contingent upon the information resources of the media system-those resources being the capacities to (a) create and gather, (b) process, and (c) disseminate information” (Ball-Rokeach, 1985, p.487). Dependency is “an interactive view of powerful media that are facilitated and constrained by societal structure” (Rubin & Windahl, 1986, p.186). Becker and Whitney (1980) combined exposure and reliance into an arbitrary index of dependency. According to Miller and Reese (1982), to be dependent on a specific medium (television or newspaper), an individual would have to (1) have high exposure to that medium; (2) have low exposure to the alternative medium; and (3) prefer the medium (p. 232). The MSD theory holds that dependency on media for goal satisfaction should vary according to the availability of functional alternatives to media within the social environment (Ball-Rokeach, 1998; Halpern, 1994; Miller & Reese, 1982). The more functional alternative available to an individual, in terms of both quantity and quality, the less the dependency on and influence from a specific channel (Halpern, 1994). To the extent that individuals have goals that cannot be satisfied through alternative sources of information, they are necessarily more dependent on media content (Kayany & Yelsma, 2000; Morton & Duck, 2001; Rubin & Windahl, 1986).

Authors: Jeong, Irkwon. and Li, Zhan.
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Media Displacement
6
linked to personal goals, that is, when audiences are dependent on media for goal satisfaction
(Ball-Rokeach, Rokeach, & Grube, 1984; Loges & Ball-Rokeach, 1993). The assumption
underlying the MSD is that when individuals perceive media to be helpful for goal satisfaction,
they would selectively expose themselves to media content and attend more to media messages,
increasing the likelihood of processing media messages and affecting personal beliefs, attitudes,
and behaviors (Morton & Duck, 2001).
Dependency within the MSD framework has been defined as “a relationship in which the
capacity of individuals to attain their goals is contingent upon the information resources of the
media system-those resources being the capacities to (a) create and gather, (b) process, and (c)
disseminate information” (Ball-Rokeach, 1985, p.487). Dependency is “an interactive view of
powerful media that are facilitated and constrained by societal structure” (Rubin & Windahl,
1986, p.186). Becker and Whitney (1980) combined exposure and reliance into an arbitrary
index of dependency. According to Miller and Reese (1982), to be dependent on a specific
medium (television or newspaper), an individual would have to (1) have high exposure to that
medium; (2) have low exposure to the alternative medium; and (3) prefer the medium (p. 232).
The MSD theory holds that dependency on media for goal satisfaction should vary
according to the availability of functional alternatives to media within the social environment
(Ball-Rokeach, 1998; Halpern, 1994; Miller & Reese, 1982). The more functional alternative
available to an individual, in terms of both quantity and quality, the less the dependency on and
influence from a specific channel (Halpern, 1994). To the extent that individuals have goals that
cannot be satisfied through alternative sources of information, they are necessarily more
dependent on media content (Kayany & Yelsma, 2000; Morton & Duck, 2001; Rubin &
Windahl, 1986).


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