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Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 10 evaluated as superior. Each rank brings with it its own set of rights and responsibilities compared to other ranks, and these rights and responsibilities form the basis for expectations and evaluations of one’s own and others' behaviors. The EM model of relating is one of equality among persons. Therefore, persons using EM are motivated to maintain that equitable balance. Unlike in CS, where members of the same group belong to be the same social entity, EM recognizes individuals as distinct social entities that have the exact same rights and responsibilities. When using the EM models, interactions and exchanges are balanced in a direct one-for-one reciprocity, such as turn taking, tit-for-tat retaliation, or egalitarian justice. Imbalances in social exchanges are noted and expected to be resolved, because they violate the bases for EM. The MP model of relating is one where interactions and social exchanges are much like economic transactions in a market economy. Relating according to the MP model is characterized by proportionality and equity. To achieve this, different aspects of relationships are reduced to a single currency or metric. As a consequence, existing imbalances in certain aspects of a relationship can be balanced by reverse imbalances in other aspects of the same relationship. That is, unlike EM relationships, in MP relationships a deficit in affection can be balanced with a surplus in interpersonal control, for example. At the same time, existing imbalances within a relationship can be expressed by a singular value, the cost/benefit ratio. This ratio allows individuals to determine the relative social value of relational partners compared to one another and the comparative relational outcome for each partner in the relationship. Thus, the MP relational model is roughly equivalent to formulations of social exchange theory (Roloff, 1981, 1987; Rusbult,& Buunk, 1993) and to Mills and Clark’s (1982) descriptions of exchange

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
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Relational Models
10
evaluated as superior. Each rank brings with it its own set of rights and responsibilities
compared to other ranks, and these rights and responsibilities form the basis for
expectations and evaluations of one’s own and others' behaviors.
The EM model of relating is one of equality among persons. Therefore, persons using
EM are motivated to maintain that equitable balance. Unlike in CS, where members of the
same group belong to be the same social entity, EM recognizes individuals as distinct
social entities that have the exact same rights and responsibilities. When using the EM
models, interactions and exchanges are balanced in a direct one-for-one reciprocity, such as
turn taking, tit-for-tat retaliation, or egalitarian justice. Imbalances in social exchanges are
noted and expected to be resolved, because they violate the bases for EM.
The MP model of relating is one where interactions and social exchanges are much like
economic transactions in a market economy. Relating according to the MP model is
characterized by proportionality and equity. To achieve this, different aspects of
relationships are reduced to a single currency or metric. As a consequence, existing
imbalances in certain aspects of a relationship can be balanced by reverse imbalances in
other aspects of the same relationship. That is, unlike EM relationships, in MP
relationships a deficit in affection can be balanced with a surplus in interpersonal control,
for example. At the same time, existing imbalances within a relationship can be expressed
by a singular value, the cost/benefit ratio. This ratio allows individuals to determine the
relative social value of relational partners compared to one another and the comparative
relational outcome for each partner in the relationship. Thus, the MP relational model is
roughly equivalent to formulations of social exchange theory (Roloff, 1981, 1987;
Rusbult,& Buunk, 1993) and to Mills and Clark’s (1982) descriptions of exchange


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