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Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 12 H1b: Vertical Collectivism correlates Communal Sharing and Authority Ranking. H1c: Horizontal Individualism correlates with Market Pricing and Equality Matching. H1d: Vertical Individualism correlates with Market Pricing and Authority Ranking. The second hypothesis tested in this study is that the four cultural types identified by Singelis et al. (1995) are expressed on the individual level as a tendency to use the two relational models that correspond to their cultural orientation more than the other two relational models. In regard to the four cultural types, Singapore is usually characterized as a VC cultures, whereas the United States is usually characterized as a HI culture. The characterization of the U.S. as a HI culture, however, is controversial. Some researchers (Singelis et al., 1995; Triandis, 1995) have argued that American culture should be identified as VI, at least in comparison with other individualistic cultures, such as the Scandinavian countries. Classifying U.S. culture as VI outright, however, seems to be overemphasizing the role of the economic system in U. S. culture. Rather, only in its tolerance for economic inequality is American society vertically oriented, in all other respects there is hardly a culture that puts greater emphasis on equality than the North American (Bellah, Madsen, Sllivan, Swidler, & Tipton, 1985). Thus, the specific predictions for this study in regard to relational models and cultures are: H2a: Americans are horizontal individualistic. H2b: American individuals are more likely to use equality matching and market pricing in their interpersonal relationships than communal sharing and authority ranking. H2c: Singaporeans are vertical collectivistic. H2d: Singaporeans individuals are more likely to use communal sharing and authority ranking in their interpersonal relationships than market pricing and equality matching.

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
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Relational Models
12
H1b: Vertical Collectivism correlates Communal Sharing and Authority Ranking.
H1c: Horizontal Individualism correlates with Market Pricing and Equality Matching.
H1d: Vertical Individualism correlates with Market Pricing and Authority Ranking.
The second hypothesis tested in this study is that the four cultural types identified
by Singelis et al. (1995) are expressed on the individual level as a tendency to use the two
relational models that correspond to their cultural orientation more than the other two
relational models. In regard to the four cultural types, Singapore is usually characterized as
a VC cultures, whereas the United States is usually characterized as a HI culture. The
characterization of the U.S. as a HI culture, however, is controversial. Some researchers
(Singelis et al., 1995; Triandis, 1995) have argued that American culture should be
identified as VI, at least in comparison with other individualistic cultures, such as the
Scandinavian countries. Classifying U.S. culture as VI outright, however, seems to be
overemphasizing the role of the economic system in U. S. culture. Rather, only in its
tolerance for economic inequality is American society vertically oriented, in all other
respects there is hardly a culture that puts greater emphasis on equality than the North
American (Bellah, Madsen, Sllivan, Swidler, & Tipton, 1985). Thus, the specific
predictions for this study in regard to relational models and cultures are:
H2a: Americans are horizontal individualistic.
H2b: American individuals are more likely to use equality matching and market pricing
in their interpersonal relationships than communal sharing and authority ranking.
H2c: Singaporeans are vertical collectivistic.
H2d: Singaporeans individuals are more likely to use communal sharing and authority
ranking in their interpersonal relationships than market pricing and equality matching.


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