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Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 14 American participants were students at a large public university in the Midwest, while the 175 Singaporean participants attended a large public university. The American sample included 42 male (39%) and 65 female (61) students whose average age was 21.13 (range: 16 –59), while the Singaporean sample included 44 male (25%) and 131 female (75%) students whose average age was 19.64 years (range: 18-25). There was little ethnic diversity in either sample. Most American participants were Caucasian (77 %), 12% Asian, 5% African Americans, 2% Hispanic, and 4% were of other ethnicity or did not identify themselves as belonging into any ethnic category. Of the Singaporean sample, 97% were Asian, 1% Caucasian, and 2% of other ethnicity or not identified. Procedure and Instruments Procedures were the same for American and Singaporean participants. Participants were recruited during their normal class time and participated in exchange for extra credit in their respective courses. Student who agreed to participate were given the address of a web-site were students first received information about the study, completed a consent form, and then the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts. Part 1 included an instrument measuring participants’ use of Fiske’s (1991, 1992) relational models in two different types of interpersonal relationships: close friendship and public relationships (i.e., classmate or acquaintance). To assure that participants reported on the same relationship within relationship types, they were instructed to think about one specific person in each relationship. In addition, participants were asked to respond to items measuring intimacy and relationship satisfaction that the participants had with each person. The instrument measuring relational models consisted of 32 questions operationalizing the four relational

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
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Relational Models
14
American participants were students at a large public university in the Midwest, while the
175 Singaporean participants attended a large public university. The American sample
included 42 male (39%) and 65 female (61) students whose average age was 21.13 (range:
16 –59), while the Singaporean sample included 44 male (25%) and 131 female (75%)
students whose average age was 19.64 years (range: 18-25). There was little ethnic
diversity in either sample. Most American participants were Caucasian (77 %), 12% Asian,
5% African Americans, 2% Hispanic, and 4% were of other ethnicity or did not identify
themselves as belonging into any ethnic category. Of the Singaporean sample, 97% were
Asian, 1% Caucasian, and 2% of other ethnicity or not identified.
Procedure and Instruments
Procedures were the same for American and Singaporean participants. Participants
were recruited during their normal class time and participated in exchange for extra credit
in their respective courses. Student who agreed to participate were given the address of a
web-site were students first received information about the study, completed a consent
form, and then the questionnaire.
The questionnaire consisted of three parts. Part 1 included an instrument measuring
participants’ use of Fiske’s (1991, 1992) relational models in two different types of
interpersonal relationships: close friendship and public relationships (i.e., classmate or
acquaintance). To assure that participants reported on the same relationship within
relationship types, they were instructed to think about one specific person in each
relationship. In addition, participants were asked to respond to items measuring intimacy
and relationship satisfaction that the participants had with each person. The instrument
measuring relational models consisted of 32 questions operationalizing the four relational


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