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Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 16 equality matching and that a vertical relationship orientation is positively correlated to authority ranking. Before testing this hypothesis, it was important to determine whether the four cultural types are unique dimensions, or whether they are determined by two underlying dimensions (i.e., individualism-collectivism & vertical-horizontal). Factor analyses of participants’ score on the four scales of the measure supported a four factor solution. Four factors had initial eigenvalues larger than 1, explaining a total of 63% of the variance. Using direct oblimin rotation, all items loaded strongly and exclusively on their respective factors (see Table 3), except for one of the vertical collectivism items, which loaded more strongly on the horizontal collectivism factor. When constrained to only two factors, which explained only 40% of the total variance, vertical and horizontal individualism items loaded on one factor, and vertical and horizontal collectivism loading onto the other, suggesting that individualism and collectivism are more powerful descriptions of culture than vertical or horizontal relationship orientation. To test the hypothesis that the relational models correlate with culture type, scores of the culture types were correlated with scores of relational models for friendships and acquaintances (see Table 4). Results of this analysis provide only partial support for the H1. Rather than being characterized by the use of two relational models, a somewhat more complex picture emerged, especially for friendships as compared to acquaintances. HC was predicted to correlate with CS and EM. Instead, HC was positively correlated with CS, and negatively correlated with AR and MP. VC was correlated only with AR, and not with AR and CS, as predicted. HI, on the other hand, was correlated with CS and EM, and not with MP and EM as predicted. Finally, VI was correlated with MP and EM, and not with MP and

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
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Relational Models
16
equality matching and that a vertical relationship orientation is positively correlated to
authority ranking.
Before testing this hypothesis, it was important to determine whether the four cultural
types are unique dimensions, or whether they are determined by two underlying dimensions
(i.e., individualism-collectivism & vertical-horizontal). Factor analyses of participants’
score on the four scales of the measure supported a four factor solution. Four factors had
initial eigenvalues larger than 1, explaining a total of 63% of the variance. Using direct
oblimin rotation, all items loaded strongly and exclusively on their respective factors (see
Table 3), except for one of the vertical collectivism items, which loaded more strongly on
the horizontal collectivism factor. When constrained to only two factors, which explained
only 40% of the total variance, vertical and horizontal individualism items loaded on one
factor, and vertical and horizontal collectivism loading onto the other, suggesting that
individualism and collectivism are more powerful descriptions of culture than vertical or
horizontal relationship orientation.
To test the hypothesis that the relational models correlate with culture type, scores of
the culture types were correlated with scores of relational models for friendships and
acquaintances (see Table 4). Results of this analysis provide only partial support for the H1.
Rather than being characterized by the use of two relational models, a somewhat more
complex picture emerged, especially for friendships as compared to acquaintances. HC was
predicted to correlate with CS and EM. Instead, HC was positively correlated with CS, and
negatively correlated with AR and MP. VC was correlated only with AR, and not with AR
and CS, as predicted. HI, on the other hand, was correlated with CS and EM, and not with
MP and EM as predicted. Finally, VI was correlated with MP and EM, and not with MP and


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