All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 3 The study of collectivism and individualism has been extraordinary fruitful because this dimension has shown to have a strong impact on a wide range of psychological processes and behaviors. For example, a study by Hui and Villareal (1989) explored the differences in psychological needs between people in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. They found that people in individualistic cultures value self-reliance and autonomy, whereas people in collectivistic cultures value interdependence, affiliation, succorance, abasement and nurturance. Investigating communication behaviors, Ting-Toomey and Kurogi (1998) found that in conflict situations people in individualistic cultures used direct and face-threatening strategies whereas people in collectivistic cultures used indirect and face-saving strategies. In addition, in individualistic cultures, individual goals are addressed and self-face is enhanced, whereas in collectivistic cultures group needs are addressed and mutual and in-group face are enhanced (Ting-Toomey & Kurogi, 1998). Even though individualism and collectivism are sometimes discussed as dichotomous categories, most researchers would argue that individualism and collectivism are polar opposites along one continuum (Triandis, 1989). That is, cultures vary from one another based on the degree of their individualism or collectivism rather than belonging into one of two categories. For example, in Hofstede’s (1984, 1991) research, the United States, a typical individualistic culture, had the highest Country Individualism Index Values (CIIV) (91) among 39 countries (Mean = 51), whereas the CIIV of Venezuela was the lowest (12). Singapore scored 20, which was in the fifth. Overall, Hofstede found Western countries to be more individualistic, whereas South American and Asian countries were more collectivistic.

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
first   previous   Page 3 of 32   next   last



background image
Relational Models
3
The study of collectivism and individualism has been extraordinary fruitful because
this dimension has shown to have a strong impact on a wide range of psychological
processes and behaviors. For example, a study by Hui and Villareal (1989) explored the
differences in psychological needs between people in individualistic and collectivistic
cultures. They found that people in individualistic cultures value self-reliance and
autonomy, whereas people in collectivistic cultures value interdependence, affiliation,
succorance, abasement and nurturance. Investigating communication behaviors,
Ting-Toomey and Kurogi (1998) found that in conflict situations people in individualistic
cultures used direct and face-threatening strategies whereas people in collectivistic cultures
used indirect and face-saving strategies. In addition, in individualistic cultures, individual
goals are addressed and self-face is enhanced, whereas in collectivistic cultures group
needs are addressed and mutual and in-group face are enhanced (Ting-Toomey & Kurogi,
1998).
Even though individualism and collectivism are sometimes discussed as dichotomous
categories, most researchers would argue that individualism and collectivism are polar
opposites along one continuum (Triandis, 1989). That is, cultures vary from one another
based on the degree of their individualism or collectivism rather than belonging into one of
two categories. For example, in Hofstede’s (1984, 1991) research, the United States, a
typical individualistic culture, had the highest Country Individualism Index Values (CIIV)
(91) among 39 countries (Mean = 51), whereas the CIIV of Venezuela was the lowest (12).
Singapore scored 20, which was in the fifth. Overall, Hofstede found Western countries to
be more individualistic, whereas South American and Asian countries were more
collectivistic.


Convention
All Academic Convention is the premier solution for your association's abstract management solutions needs.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 3 of 32   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.