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Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 6 values and norms (Fiske et al., 2001). Consequently, it is necessary to also consider culture from a psychological perspective, which requires one to investigate how cultural norms and values are represented in the cognition of individuals. Triandis, Leung, Villareal, and Clack (1985) did precisely that for the cultural dimensions of individualism and collectivism. They argued that the psychology and behaviors of individuals are never completely uniform within any given culture and it is therefore useful to identify individualism and collectivism on the individual level as idiocentrism and allocentrism, respectively. Likewise, Markus and Kitayama (1991) developed the notion of independent and interdependent construals of the self to describe cultural differences on the level of the individual. Idiocentrism is the expression of individualistic values and norms at the level of individual psychology. It is concerned with values such as a comfortable life, competition, pleasure and social recognition. According to Triandis et al. (1985), it is related to need for achievement, alienation, and anomie. Allocentrism is the expression of collectivistic values at the level of individual psychology. It is concerned with values such as cooperation, equality, and honesty. It is strongly related to perceptions of social support received, and quality and satisfaction with the support. Markus and Kitayama’s (1991) concept of the independent-self is similar to the concept of idiocentrism, whereas the concept of the interdependent self is similar to the concept of allocentrism. Markus and Kitayama defined self as a cognitive construct that others cannot know directly and that is beyond “a physical or ecological sense of self […], and of the continuous flow of thoughts and feelings” (p. 225). They further argued that although some aspects of self are universal, most important aspects of the self are determined by culture.

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
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Relational Models
6
values and norms (Fiske et al., 2001). Consequently, it is necessary to also consider culture
from a psychological perspective, which requires one to investigate how cultural norms and
values are represented in the cognition of individuals. Triandis, Leung, Villareal, and Clack
(1985) did precisely that for the cultural dimensions of individualism and collectivism.
They argued that the psychology and behaviors of individuals are never completely
uniform within any given culture and it is therefore useful to identify individualism and
collectivism on the individual level as idiocentrism and allocentrism, respectively.
Likewise, Markus and Kitayama (1991) developed the notion of independent and
interdependent construals of the self to describe cultural differences on the level of the
individual.
Idiocentrism is the expression of individualistic values and norms at the level of
individual psychology. It is concerned with values such as a comfortable life, competition,
pleasure and social recognition. According to Triandis et al. (1985), it is related to need for
achievement, alienation, and anomie. Allocentrism is the expression of collectivistic values
at the level of individual psychology. It is concerned with values such as cooperation,
equality, and honesty. It is strongly related to perceptions of social support received, and
quality and satisfaction with the support.
Markus and Kitayama’s (1991) concept of the independent-self is similar to the concept
of idiocentrism, whereas the concept of the interdependent self is similar to the concept of
allocentrism. Markus and Kitayama defined self as a cognitive construct that others cannot
know directly and that is beyond “a physical or ecological sense of self […], and of the
continuous flow of thoughts and feelings” (p. 225). They further argued that although some
aspects of self are universal, most important aspects of the self are determined by culture.


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