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Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 7 According to their definitions, the interdependent self is concerned with connection to others and social relationship, whereas the independent self is concerned with separation from others, autonomy, and independence. In their research, Marcus and Kitayama (1991) found that individuals from Western cultures hold more independent construals of the self, whereas individuals in Asian and Hispanic cultures hold more interdependent construals of the self. The conceptualization that cultural variables existing at the level of individual psychology not only is consistent with observed differences between individuals of different cultures, but also with observed differences among individuals of the same culture. For example, research found evidence for the coexistence of both ideocentrism and allocentrism in India (Sinha & Tripathi, 1994), China (Ho & Chiu, 1994), and Japan (Yamaguchi, 1994). Triandis (1995) also suggested that Japan and China, both collectivistic countries, are showing increasing evidence of idiocentric traits among their members, especially among the younger generations. Similarly, people in Scandinavian countries, which are usually described as individualistic, recognize the importance of in-groups, which is indicative of the allocentrism of the individuals. Relational Models and Cultural Differences Allocentrism and idiocentrism, proposed by Triandis et al. (1985), are the individual level instantiations of the cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism. However, as we have argued above, individualism and collectivism alone are incomplete descriptors of culture and adding the cultural level dimension of vertical versus horizontal relationship orientation dramatically increases their explanatory power. Therefore, to arrive at a better conceptualization of how culture is instantiated on the level of the individual, idiocentrism

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
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Relational Models
7
According to their definitions, the interdependent self is concerned with connection to
others and social relationship, whereas the independent self is concerned with separation
from others, autonomy, and independence. In their research, Marcus and Kitayama (1991)
found that individuals from Western cultures hold more independent construals of the self,
whereas individuals in Asian and Hispanic cultures hold more interdependent construals of
the self.
The conceptualization that cultural variables existing at the level of individual
psychology not only is consistent with observed differences between individuals of
different cultures, but also with observed differences among individuals of the same
culture. For example, research found evidence for the coexistence of both ideocentrism and
allocentrism in India (Sinha & Tripathi, 1994), China (Ho & Chiu, 1994), and Japan
(Yamaguchi, 1994). Triandis (1995) also suggested that Japan and China, both
collectivistic countries, are showing increasing evidence of idiocentric traits among their
members, especially among the younger generations. Similarly, people in Scandinavian
countries, which are usually described as individualistic, recognize the importance of
in-groups, which is indicative of the allocentrism of the individuals.
Relational Models and Cultural Differences
Allocentrism and idiocentrism, proposed by Triandis et al. (1985), are the individual
level instantiations of the cultural dimension of individualism and collectivism. However,
as we have argued above, individualism and collectivism alone are incomplete descriptors
of culture and adding the cultural level dimension of vertical versus horizontal relationship
orientation dramatically increases their explanatory power. Therefore, to arrive at a better
conceptualization of how culture is instantiated on the level of the individual, idiocentrism


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