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Relational Models and Horizontal & Vertical Individualism-Collectivism:
Unformatted Document Text:  Relational Models 8 and allocentrism have to be augmented by individual level representations of horizontal and vertical relationship orientations as well. One way to achieve this augmentation would be to simply design a new measure for horizontal and vertical relationship orientation on the individual level, much like Triandis et al.’s (1985) and Markus and Kitayama’s (1991) individual level measurements of individualism and collectivism. Although ostensibly simple, this method has the disadvantage that the psychometric properties of such newly designed measures are unknown and needed to be established. In addition, a measure of horizontal and vertical idiocentrism and allocentrism alone would add little in way if theoretical knowledge about the variables. Particularly in regard to how these variables are represented in cognition. A better strategy, therefore, would be to identify an existing model that conceptualizes and measures horizontal and vertical relationships, and that also makes a theoretical claim about how these concepts are represented cognitively. Fortunately, precisely such a theory exists with Fiske’s (1991, 1992, 1993) relational model theory. Relational Model Theory Fiske (1991, 1992, 1993) argued that people interact with one another to construct and to participate in relationships that are based on one or more of only four fundamental relational models. He further claimed that the impact of these basic models is: pervasive, that is, governing all domains and aspects of social relationships; exhaustive, meaning no other fundamental types of relating exist; and generative, meaning that all relationships are constructed using the four basic relational models he proposed. The four relational models defined by Fiske are communal sharing (CS), authority ranking (AR), equality matching (EM) and market pricing (MP). These four models are types of relating rather than

Authors: Koerner, Ascan.
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Relational Models
8
and allocentrism have to be augmented by individual level representations of horizontal
and vertical relationship orientations as well.
One way to achieve this augmentation would be to simply design a new measure for
horizontal and vertical relationship orientation on the individual level, much like Triandis
et al.’s (1985) and Markus and Kitayama’s (1991) individual level measurements of
individualism and collectivism. Although ostensibly simple, this method has the
disadvantage that the psychometric properties of such newly designed measures are
unknown and needed to be established. In addition, a measure of horizontal and vertical
idiocentrism and allocentrism alone would add little in way if theoretical knowledge about
the variables. Particularly in regard to how these variables are represented in cognition. A
better strategy, therefore, would be to identify an existing model that conceptualizes and
measures horizontal and vertical relationships, and that also makes a theoretical claim
about how these concepts are represented cognitively. Fortunately, precisely such a theory
exists with Fiske’s (1991, 1992, 1993) relational model theory.
Relational Model Theory
Fiske (1991, 1992, 1993) argued that people interact with one another to construct and
to participate in relationships that are based on one or more of only four fundamental
relational models. He further claimed that the impact of these basic models is: pervasive,
that is, governing all domains and aspects of social relationships; exhaustive, meaning no
other fundamental types of relating exist; and generative, meaning that all relationships are
constructed using the four basic relational models he proposed. The four relational models
defined by Fiske are communal sharing (CS), authority ranking (AR), equality matching
(EM) and market pricing (MP). These four models are types of relating rather than


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