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Demographic Diversity and Effective Message Design: How Behavioral Theory Can Help
Unformatted Document Text:  Diversity effects 7 2. Is the predictive power of attitude, perceived norms and self-efficacy as determinants of the intention to regularly use marijuana different for demographic segments? • Diversity message effects – 3. To what extent is the perceived effectiveness of anti-drug messages influenced by ethnicity, gender and age? 4. Do ethnicity, gender and age influence the effectiveness of anti-drug messages in changing determinants of regular marijuana use? Method Participants and procedures The study was run in middle and high schools in metropolitan Philadelphia between January 1999 and November 2000. For the purpose of this research we included White and African American adolescents in the study sample. While other ethnic groups were represented in the data, these groups were too small for meaningful analyses of ethnicity. Data from two respondents were omitted from the analyses because of outliers and illogical response patterns. The final study sample consisted of 1,194 adolescents of whom 70% were White (45% male; M age = 14.91, SD = 1.87) and 30% were African American (38% male; M age = 14.39, SD = 1.96). Age range was 10-19 years. The data came from a larger research project that experimentally tested the effects of anti-drug advertisements on determinants of marijuana use (see Yzer et al., 2002). Anti-drug ads were presented to participants in experimental conditions, but not to participants in control conditions. For each of nine experimental conditions a set of ads was selected that addressed a common theme, e.g., ads that debunk the myth that most adolescents use marijuana, or that

Authors: Fishbein, Martin., Cappella, Joseph. and Yzer, Marcus.
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Diversity effects 7
2. Is the predictive power of attitude, perceived norms and self-efficacy as determinants
of the intention to regularly use marijuana different for demographic segments?
Diversity message effects –
3. To what extent is the perceived effectiveness of anti-drug messages influenced by
ethnicity, gender and age?
4. Do ethnicity, gender and age influence the effectiveness of anti-drug messages in
changing determinants of regular marijuana use?
Method
Participants and procedures
The study was run in middle and high schools in metropolitan Philadelphia between
January 1999 and November 2000. For the purpose of this research we included White and
African American adolescents in the study sample. While other ethnic groups were represented
in the data, these groups were too small for meaningful analyses of ethnicity. Data from two
respondents were omitted from the analyses because of outliers and illogical response patterns.
The final study sample consisted of 1,194 adolescents of whom 70% were White (45% male;
M
age
= 14.91, SD = 1.87) and 30% were African American (38% male; M
age
= 14.39, SD = 1.96).
Age range was 10-19 years.
The data came from a larger research project that experimentally tested the effects of
anti-drug advertisements on determinants of marijuana use (see Yzer et al., 2002). Anti-drug ads
were presented to participants in experimental conditions, but not to participants in control
conditions. For each of nine experimental conditions a set of ads was selected that addressed a
common theme, e.g., ads that debunk the myth that most adolescents use marijuana, or that


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