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Gender Differences in the Communication Values of Mature Adults
Unformatted Document Text:  Gender Differences in Communication Values 7 14 items. Reliability analysis on the 20 items for masculinity indicated an alpha of .90 and no item-total correlations less than .30. Accordingly, an index of masculinity was created from the mean of the items. Results The first research question—concerning gender differences in communication values— was addressed using a 2 (gender) X 8 (communication skill) ANOVA with repeated measures on the last factor. Table 1 lists the means compared in this analysis. The ANOVA detected a large and highly significant main effect for type of communication skill, F (7, 2107) = 250.07, p = .000, 2 = .46, and a small but significant interaction between sex and communication values, F (7, 2107) = 7.82, p = .000, 2 = .03. The main effect for sex was nonsignificant, F (1, 301) = .18, p < .68. Simple-effects analyses using one-way ANOVAs revealed significant sex differences in the value placed on conflict management skill (F (1, 303) = 4.34, p < .04), comforting skill (F (1, 303) = 14.77, p < .00), and persuasive skill (F (1, 303) = 7.14, p < .01). As indicated by the means in Table 1, women valued conflict management and comforting skills more than did men, whereas men valued persuasive skill more than did women. Gender did not have a significant effect on the other five skills. Hypothesis 1 was evaluated by computing correlations between femininity, masculinity, and each of the eight skill values. Table 2 presents these correlations, along with those between sex and the skill values. As the correlations indicate, femininity had a significant positive correlation with each of the four affective skills, but also with two of the instrumental skills (conversational and informative). Masculinity had a significant positive correlation with value placed on three of the four instrumental skills (conversational, informative, and persuasive), but was not correlated with value placed on narrative skill. Masculinity also had a significant

Authors: MacGeorge, Erina., Feng, Bo. and Butler, Ginger.
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Gender Differences in Communication Values 7
14 items. Reliability analysis on the 20 items for masculinity indicated an alpha of .90 and no
item-total correlations less than .30. Accordingly, an index of masculinity was created from the
mean of the items.
Results
The first research question—concerning gender differences in communication values—
was addressed using a 2 (gender) X 8 (communication skill) ANOVA with repeated measures on
the last factor. Table 1 lists the means compared in this analysis. The ANOVA detected a large
and highly significant main effect for type of communication skill, F (7, 2107) = 250.07, p =
.000,
2
= .46, and a small but significant interaction between sex and communication values, F
(7, 2107) = 7.82, p = .000,
2
= .03. The main effect for sex was nonsignificant, F (1, 301) = .18,
p < .68. Simple-effects analyses using one-way ANOVAs revealed significant sex differences in
the value placed on conflict management skill (F (1, 303) = 4.34, p < .04), comforting skill (F
(1, 303) = 14.77, p < .00), and persuasive skill (F (1, 303) = 7.14, p < .01). As indicated by the
means in Table 1, women valued conflict management and comforting skills more than did men,
whereas men valued persuasive skill more than did women. Gender did not have a significant
effect on the other five skills.
Hypothesis 1 was evaluated by computing correlations between femininity, masculinity,
and each of the eight skill values. Table 2 presents these correlations, along with those between
sex and the skill values. As the correlations indicate, femininity had a significant positive
correlation with each of the four affective skills, but also with two of the instrumental skills
(conversational and informative). Masculinity had a significant positive correlation with value
placed on three of the four instrumental skills (conversational, informative, and persuasive), but
was not correlated with value placed on narrative skill. Masculinity also had a significant


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