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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 10 overall argument is that in many situations gender-consistent schemata are triggered, but in some situations gender-inconsistent schemata are activated. A further study that showed the Gender- Linked Language Effect disappearing in eighth and twelfth grade children under formal writing constraints (except for males’ higher Dynamism ratings) is also relevant here (Mulac, Studley, & Blau, 1990). More recently, Palomares (2002) showed that individuals use prototypical gender-linked language only when gender identity is salient. For example, a women with a salient gender identity used more prototypical female language and less prototypical male language. However, when individuals’ gender identity is not salient (but student identity is salient) individuals use the gender-linked language of the opposite gender group (e.g., a women with a salient student identity, compared to those with a salient gender identity, used more prototypical male language and less prototypical female language). Thus, certain situational factors can influence whether or not gender-linked language is used. Perception of context: PC s Speakers always create messages in a perceived communication context, and hearers’ evaluations of speakers and their messages are always contextualized also. There are many layers of context, including the occasion or situation, perceived speaker attributes, perceived speaker purpose, earlier remarks in a conversation, an immediately preceding utterance, and so forth. One important research finding is that the production of gender-linked language and associated gender-linked language effects have been obtained across a variety of types of communication tasks, e.g., public speaking, description of a photograph, and problem-solving interaction, which almost certainly produced varying speaker and respondent perceptions of speaker purpose. This outcome suggests that the gender-linked language effect is constant across at least one dimension of perceived context. However, it seems likely that other contextual features will influence the

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
10
overall argument is that in many situations gender-consistent schemata are triggered, but in some
situations gender-inconsistent schemata are activated. A further study that showed the Gender-
Linked Language Effect disappearing in eighth and twelfth grade children under formal writing
constraints (except for males’ higher Dynamism ratings) is also relevant here (Mulac, Studley, &
Blau, 1990). More recently, Palomares (2002) showed that individuals use prototypical
gender-linked language only when gender identity is salient. For example, a women with a
salient gender identity used more prototypical female language and less prototypical male
language. However, when individuals’ gender identity is not salient (but student identity is
salient) individuals use the gender-linked language of the opposite gender group (e.g., a women
with a salient student identity, compared to those with a salient gender identity, used more
prototypical male language and less prototypical female language). Thus, certain situational
factors can influence whether or not gender-linked language is used.
Perception of context: PC
s
Speakers always create messages in a perceived communication context, and hearers’
evaluations of speakers and their messages are always contextualized also. There are many layers
of context, including the occasion or situation, perceived speaker attributes, perceived speaker
purpose, earlier remarks in a conversation, an immediately preceding utterance, and so forth.
One important research finding is that the production of gender-linked language and associated
gender-linked language effects have been obtained across a variety of types of communication
tasks, e.g., public speaking, description of a photograph, and problem-solving interaction, which
almost certainly produced varying speaker and respondent perceptions of speaker purpose. This
outcome suggests that the gender-linked language effect is constant across at least one dimension
of perceived context. However, it seems likely that other contextual features will influence the


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