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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 11 effect, perhaps diminishing it, intensifying it, or eliminating it altogether—possibly aspects of context related to gender, e.g., topic of discourse or perceived gender-related conflict. In fact, one study examined the effect of a specific speaker attribute, namely speaker sex, on ratings of SIS, AQ, and D under conditions where attributed speaker sex and the actual sex of the speaker producing language used to create transcripts read by respondents were either matched or mismatched (Mulac et al., 1985). Both gender-linked language and gender stereotypes were found to influence judgments of the speaker. Gender-linked language schemata and stereotypes: GLS s In a discussion of sex-typing, Bem (1985) offers a general definition of the “schema” construct and of gender schemata particularly, making a brief reference to language: A schema is a cognitive structure, a network of associations that organizes and guides an individual’s perception…More specifically, schematic information processing entails a readiness to sort information into categories on the basis of some particular dimension, despite the existence of other dimensions that could serve equally well in this regard. Gender-schematic processing in particular thus involves spontaneously sorting persons, attributes, and behaviors into masculine or feminine categories…regardless of their differences on a variety of dimensions unrelated to gender—for example, spontaneously placing items like “tender” and “nightingale” into a feminine category and items like “assertive” and “eagle” into a masculine category (p.187). Additionally, she indicates that “The dimensions chosen as cognitive organizing principles thus function as a kind of nonconscious ideology, an underlying or deep cognitive structure influencing one’s perception without conscious awareness. Such is the nature of schematic processing generally. Such, in particular, is the nature of gender-schematic processing” (p. 189). It seems important to us that Bem points to the implicit nature of schemata; they are deep cognitive structures existing outside of awareness. In this respect, they resemble implicit personality theories (Kelly, 1995), lay theories of various phenomena (Cole & Bradac, 1996), and knowledge of syntactic and morphological rules of a language (Chomsky, 1957), all of

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
11
effect, perhaps diminishing it, intensifying it, or eliminating it altogether—possibly aspects of
context related to gender, e.g., topic of discourse or perceived gender-related conflict. In fact,
one study examined the effect of a specific speaker attribute, namely speaker sex, on ratings of
SIS, AQ, and D under conditions where attributed speaker sex and the actual sex of the speaker
producing language used to create transcripts read by respondents were either matched or
mismatched (Mulac et al., 1985). Both gender-linked language and gender stereotypes were
found to influence judgments of the speaker.
Gender-linked language schemata and stereotypes: GLS
s
In a discussion of sex-typing, Bem (1985) offers a general definition of the “schema”
construct and of gender schemata particularly, making a brief reference to language:
A schema is a cognitive structure, a network of associations that organizes and guides an
individual’s perception…More specifically, schematic information processing entails a
readiness to sort information into categories on the basis of some particular dimension,
despite the existence of other dimensions that could serve equally well in this regard.
Gender-schematic processing in particular thus involves spontaneously sorting persons,
attributes, and behaviors into masculine or feminine categories…regardless of their
differences on a variety of dimensions unrelated to gender—for example, spontaneously
placing items like “tender” and “nightingale” into a feminine category and items like
“assertive” and “eagle” into a masculine category (p.187).
Additionally, she indicates that “The dimensions chosen as cognitive organizing principles thus
function as a kind of nonconscious ideology, an underlying or deep cognitive structure
influencing one’s perception without conscious awareness. Such is the nature of schematic
processing generally. Such, in particular, is the nature of gender-schematic processing” (p. 189).
It seems important to us that Bem points to the implicit nature of schemata; they are deep
cognitive structures existing outside of awareness. In this respect, they resemble implicit
personality theories (Kelly, 1995), lay theories of various phenomena (Cole & Bradac, 1996),
and knowledge of syntactic and morphological rules of a language (Chomsky, 1957), all of


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