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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 12 which can be inferred from the judgments and performance of naive respondents, but which are typically unavailable to introspection and therefore normally inexpressible by persons without special training. Linguists, for example and by contrast, can explicitly model speakers’ tacit linguistic knowledge using logical and mathematical formalisms. On the other hand “stereotypes” are cognitive structures that are typically easily accessible by untutored persons. They are evaluative and descriptive “generalizations about categories” (Brown, 1965, p. 181) that are often transmitted verbally. More specifically, they are beliefs about characteristics of members of groups: attitudes, dispositions, and behaviors—including language behavior. These beliefs may our may not be seen as unfounded by those who have access to them. People have linguistic stereotypes of many sorts, including stereotypes of men’s and women’s language. Thus, and stereotypically, women are xxx and men are yyy in terms of their language use (Kramer, 1976). When men and women consciously try to imitate or parody the language of the opposite sex, they are drawing upon this stereotypical knowledge—men may use “empty” adjectives ("it was divine") while raising the pitch of their voice. Lakoff may have drawn upon this knowledge of stereotypes in her well-known characterization of men’s and women’s language (1975), because her method of analysis was essentially introspective, reflecting her linguistic intuitions, and stereotypes are more easily available to introspection than are implicit schemata, as all beliefs are. We hypothesize that linguistic stereotypes affect language performance primarily when communicators consciously attempt or plan to speak in gender-related ways. Such planning may sometimes reflect the “hierarchy principle” (Berger, 1997) which suggests that when deviating from a typical pattern (a typical situation being a man using male language features), a speaker will vary those features that are most easily controlled (demanding the least cognitive effort). In the case of a man imitating female language,

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
12
which can be inferred from the judgments and performance of naive respondents, but which are
typically unavailable to introspection and therefore normally inexpressible by persons without
special training. Linguists, for example and by contrast, can explicitly model speakers’ tacit
linguistic knowledge using logical and mathematical formalisms. On the other hand
“stereotypes” are cognitive structures that are typically easily accessible by untutored persons.
They are evaluative and descriptive “generalizations about categories” (Brown, 1965, p. 181)
that are often transmitted verbally. More specifically, they are beliefs about characteristics of
members of groups: attitudes, dispositions, and behaviors—including language behavior. These
beliefs may our may not be seen as unfounded by those who have access to them.
People have linguistic stereotypes of many sorts, including stereotypes of men’s and
women’s language. Thus, and stereotypically, women are xxx and men are yyy in terms of their
language use (Kramer, 1976). When men and women consciously try to imitate or parody the
language of the opposite sex, they are drawing upon this stereotypical knowledge—men may use
“empty” adjectives ("it was divine") while raising the pitch of their voice. Lakoff may have
drawn upon this knowledge of stereotypes in her well-known characterization of men’s and
women’s language (1975), because her method of analysis was essentially introspective,
reflecting her linguistic intuitions, and stereotypes are more easily available to introspection than
are implicit schemata, as all beliefs are. We hypothesize that linguistic stereotypes affect
language performance primarily when communicators consciously attempt or plan to speak in
gender-related ways. Such planning may sometimes reflect the “hierarchy principle” (Berger,
1997) which suggests that when deviating from a typical pattern (a typical situation being a man
using male language features), a speaker will vary those features that are most easily controlled
(demanding the least cognitive effort). In the case of a man imitating female language,


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