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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 17 and female features increases the likelihood of occurrence of peripheral features, but not vice versa. The idea of networks of gender-linked linguistic items can be intersected rather simply with the notion of schematic dimensions discussed above. The dimension of directness, for example, may be conceptualized as two adjacent fuzzy sets, one labeled “direct” and the other “indirect.” Prototypical linguistic items for “direct” and “indirect” receive scores of +5 and -5, respectively. With deviations from prototypically direct items, scores decrease until reaching 0; with deviations from prototypically indirect items, scores increase until reaching 0. The 0-point is the single common boundary of the fuzzy sets. Deviant items are dispersed throughout the sets with multiple within-set interconnections as mentioned above. Linguistic items from the direct, succinct, instrumental, and personal sets have some degree of interconnection, as do items from the indirect, elaborate, affective, and contextual sets, if as we expect, activation of “direct” nodes will activate “instrumental” nodes, for example. Effects on hearer judgments: J h We have already pointed out that, with remarkable consistency across studies, hearers (operationalized as readers of transcribed language) generally judge women and girls to be higher in Socio-Intellectual Status and Aesthetic Quality, and men and boys to be higher in Dynamism, based on their language use. These effects are the same for male and female observers, and for younger (20 years) and older (45 years of age) observers across roughly 10 investigations (Mulac, 1998). These judgments are not for each and every male and female speaker, but are aggregate ratings across male and female communicators. But what leads hearers to make the judgments that they render? One point that emerges from our discussion of gender-linked language schemata, hearer

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
17
and female features increases the likelihood of occurrence of peripheral features, but not vice
versa.
The idea of networks of gender-linked linguistic items can be intersected rather simply
with the notion of schematic dimensions discussed above. The dimension of directness, for
example, may be conceptualized as two adjacent fuzzy sets, one labeled “direct” and the other
“indirect.” Prototypical linguistic items for “direct” and “indirect” receive scores of +5 and -5,
respectively. With deviations from prototypically direct items, scores decrease until reaching 0;
with deviations from prototypically indirect items, scores increase until reaching 0. The 0-point
is the single common boundary of the fuzzy sets. Deviant items are dispersed throughout the sets
with multiple within-set interconnections as mentioned above. Linguistic items from the direct,
succinct, instrumental, and personal sets have some degree of interconnection, as do items from
the indirect, elaborate, affective, and contextual sets, if as we expect, activation of “direct” nodes
will activate “instrumental” nodes, for example.
Effects on hearer judgments: J
h
We have already pointed out that, with remarkable consistency across studies, hearers
(operationalized as readers of transcribed language) generally judge women and girls to be
higher in Socio-Intellectual Status and Aesthetic Quality, and men and boys to be higher in
Dynamism, based on their language use. These effects are the same for male and female
observers, and for younger (20 years) and older (45 years of age) observers across roughly 10
investigations (Mulac, 1998). These judgments are not for each and every male and female
speaker, but are aggregate ratings across male and female communicators. But what leads
hearers to make the judgments that they render?
One point that emerges from our discussion of gender-linked language schemata, hearer


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