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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 18 perception of context, and the gender-linked language effect is that although speakers draw upon schemata in many situations when speaking (or writing informally), hearers judge the subtle features constituting the male and female clusters in terms of gender stereotypes, or at least are capable of doing so when asked to respond to rating scales reflecting stereotypes, e.g., those items comprising the Speech Dialect Attitudinal Scale (SDAS; Mulac, 1975, 1976). We would predict with high confidence that hearers would rate explicitly gender-stereotypical language in the same way. So, when asked to think in terms of gender-stereotypical dimensions, respondents are able to discriminate among language samples (even when they cannot consciously identify speaker gender). This raises a question for future research: When exposed to the subtle, ostensibly schema-driven linguistic features that produce the gender-linked language effect, what thoughts arise spontaneously in the minds of respondents? Are these spontaneous thoughts associated with gender in some indirect, associative way, for example, thoughts related to power? (We would not expect explicit gender-related thoughts, given that respondents are unable to identify speaker gender accurately.) Or do these thoughts reflect other classificatory or evaluative dimensions unrelated to gender? These questions could be answered preliminarily by using a simple thought-listing procedure (e.g., Whaley & Wagner, 2000). Hearer behavior toward speaker: B h As a result of the hearer’s evaluation of speaker SIS, AQ, and D, the hearer’s behavior toward the speaker will be affected, especially in initial-impression situations. This will be true even in mass-mediated contexts where some viewers, for example, send e-mail to news commentators (Wolf Blitzer or Greta Van Susteren), and the e-mailers may even receive feedback from the commentators in the form of televised reactions to the e-mail. In more commonplace face-to-face situations, hearer reactions to a speaker’s use of gender-linked

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
18
perception of context, and the gender-linked language effect is that although speakers draw upon
schemata in many situations when speaking (or writing informally), hearers judge the subtle
features constituting the male and female clusters in terms of gender stereotypes, or at least are
capable of doing so when asked to respond to rating scales reflecting stereotypes, e.g., those
items comprising the Speech Dialect Attitudinal Scale (SDAS; Mulac, 1975, 1976). We would
predict with high confidence that hearers would rate explicitly gender-stereotypical language in
the same way. So, when asked to think in terms of gender-stereotypical dimensions, respondents
are able to discriminate among language samples (even when they cannot consciously identify
speaker gender). This raises a question for future research: When exposed to the subtle,
ostensibly schema-driven linguistic features that produce the gender-linked language effect, what
thoughts arise spontaneously in the minds of respondents? Are these spontaneous thoughts
associated with gender in some indirect, associative way, for example, thoughts related to
power? (We would not expect explicit gender-related thoughts, given that respondents are unable
to identify speaker gender accurately.) Or do these thoughts reflect other classificatory or
evaluative dimensions unrelated to gender? These questions could be answered preliminarily by
using a simple thought-listing procedure (e.g., Whaley & Wagner, 2000).
Hearer behavior toward speaker: B
h
As a result of the hearer’s evaluation of speaker SIS, AQ, and D, the hearer’s behavior
toward the speaker will be affected, especially in initial-impression situations. This will be true
even in mass-mediated contexts where some viewers, for example, send e-mail to news
commentators (Wolf Blitzer or Greta Van Susteren), and the e-mailers may even receive
feedback from the commentators in the form of televised reactions to the e-mail. In more
commonplace face-to-face situations, hearer reactions to a speaker’s use of gender-linked


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