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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 1 The gender-linked language effect has been obtained frequently in empirical studies conducted over the last twenty years (Mulac, 1998); indeed, arguably it is one of the most frequently replicated findings in the area of gender and communication. Essentially, the effect indicates that the language of women produces more positive hearer evaluative judgments of a speaker’s Socio-Intellectual Status (SIS) and Aesthetic Quality (AQ), whereas men’s language produces higher ratings on Dynamism (D). (More about this below.) This highly stable effect is important because systematic gender-related differences in evaluation, especially in initial encounters, can affect impressions of suitability for tasks and projections of the desirability of future interaction (Lindsey & Zakahi, 1998). Perhaps surprisingly, this stable and important effect has not been subjected to conceptual analysis; that is, there is no theory or general model of the gender-linked language effect. What is needed at this point, or at least what would be useful, is a conceptual statement that explains the effect as part of a process. There are other linguistic effects that have been subjected to conceptual scrutiny which has yielded interesting and heuristic explanatory structures, e.g., communication accommodation (Giles & Coupland, 1991, Chapter 3; Shepard, Giles, & Le Poire, 2001), language expectancy effects (Burgoon & Burgoon, 2001), and the perception and consequences of verbal irony (Colston, 1997, 2000; Kreuz & Glucksberg, 1989). The gender-linked language effect may prove similarly amenable to conceptual analysis and an attempt at model construction. Indeed, our goal in this paper is to produce a “general process model” (Cargile & Bradac, 2001) that gives some sense of explanation for particular antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women. The Gender-linked Language Effect It should be useful at this point to describe in detail the nature of the gender-linked

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
1
The gender-linked language effect has been obtained frequently in empirical studies
conducted over the last twenty years (Mulac, 1998); indeed, arguably it is one of the most
frequently replicated findings in the area of gender and communication. Essentially, the effect
indicates that the language of women produces more positive hearer evaluative judgments of a
speaker’s Socio-Intellectual Status (SIS) and Aesthetic Quality (AQ), whereas men’s language
produces higher ratings on Dynamism (D). (More about this below.) This highly stable effect is
important because systematic gender-related differences in evaluation, especially in initial
encounters, can affect impressions of suitability for tasks and projections of the desirability of
future interaction (Lindsey & Zakahi, 1998). Perhaps surprisingly, this stable and important
effect has not been subjected to conceptual analysis; that is, there is no theory or general model
of the gender-linked language effect.
What is needed at this point, or at least what would be useful, is a conceptual statement
that explains the effect as part of a process. There are other linguistic effects that have been
subjected to conceptual scrutiny which has yielded interesting and heuristic explanatory
structures, e.g., communication accommodation (Giles & Coupland, 1991, Chapter 3; Shepard,
Giles, & Le Poire, 2001), language expectancy effects (Burgoon & Burgoon, 2001), and the
perception and consequences of verbal irony (Colston, 1997, 2000; Kreuz & Glucksberg, 1989).
The gender-linked language effect may prove similarly amenable to conceptual analysis and an
attempt at model construction. Indeed, our goal in this paper is to produce a “general process
model” (Cargile & Bradac, 2001) that gives some sense of explanation for particular antecedents
for and consequences of language used by men and women.
The Gender-linked Language Effect
It should be useful at this point to describe in detail the nature of the gender-linked


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