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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 19 language can be immediate and will serve as one form of situational input to the speaker: B h = SI 2 1 (and therefore, B h Æ PC s , GLS s …). If the speaker is judged as high in dynamism (e.g., a man using male language features), a hearer may perceive the speaker as dominant and may attempt to reciprocate dominance or may acquiesce. If the hearer is a male (especially), the perception of speaker dominance may activate the hearer’s schemata for male language features. The hearer’s reciprocated dominance, if this occurs, may in turn energize the speaker’s male- language schemata. If the speaker is judged as high in socio-intellectual status and aesthetic quality (e.g., a woman using female language features), a hearer may perceive the speaker as competent and literate, which may enhance credibility in situations where literacy is valued. If the hearer is a female (especially), the perception of competence and literacy may activate schemata for female language features. If the hearer conveys her judgment of credibility to the speaker, especially if the hearer uses female language features in conveying this judgment, the speaker’s female language schemata may be (further) energized and behavior reflecting these schemata reinforced. In situations of mixed-sex interaction that encourage accommodation, the perception of a male speaker’s dominance may activate male language schemata in female hearers, while the perception of a female speaker’s competence and literacy may activate female language schemata in male hearers. Relationships among the Constructs If the links of the proposed causal chain are taken as axioms, theorems can be generated using the transitivity rule that underlies the logic of valid syllogisms. This syllogistic logic was used to generate 15 of the 21 theorems of Berger and Calabrese’s uncertainty reduction theory (1975; Bradac, 2001), although our depicted relationships differ from Berger and Calabrese’s in that the axioms show hypothesized rather than established relationships; the relationships are

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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background image
General Process Model of the GLLE
19
language can be immediate and will serve as one form of situational input to the speaker: B
h
=
SI
2
1
(and therefore, B
h
Æ PC
s
, GLS
s
…). If the speaker is judged as high in dynamism (e.g., a
man using male language features), a hearer may perceive the speaker as dominant and may
attempt to reciprocate dominance or may acquiesce. If the hearer is a male (especially), the
perception of speaker dominance may activate the hearer’s schemata for male language features.
The hearer’s reciprocated dominance, if this occurs, may in turn energize the speaker’s male-
language schemata. If the speaker is judged as high in socio-intellectual status and aesthetic
quality (e.g., a woman using female language features), a hearer may perceive the speaker as
competent and literate, which may enhance credibility in situations where literacy is valued. If
the hearer is a female (especially), the perception of competence and literacy may activate
schemata for female language features. If the hearer conveys her judgment of credibility to the
speaker, especially if the hearer uses female language features in conveying this judgment, the
speaker’s female language schemata may be (further) energized and behavior reflecting these
schemata reinforced. In situations of mixed-sex interaction that encourage accommodation, the
perception of a male speaker’s dominance may activate male language schemata in female
hearers, while the perception of a female speaker’s competence and literacy may activate female
language schemata in male hearers.
Relationships among the Constructs
If the links of the proposed causal chain are taken as axioms, theorems can be generated
using the transitivity rule that underlies the logic of valid syllogisms. This syllogistic logic was
used to generate 15 of the 21 theorems of Berger and Calabrese’s uncertainty reduction theory
(1975; Bradac, 2001), although our depicted relationships differ from Berger and Calabrese’s in
that the axioms show hypothesized rather than established relationships; the relationships are


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