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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 22 hearer’s use of the intensifiers “really” and “all” are two molecular language variables associated with a speaker’s judgment of high hearer socio-intellectual status (Bradac, Mulac, & Thompson, 1995), and this judgment may heighten the extent to which the situational dimension of status is salient in Giles and Ryan’s sense of the term “status-stressing contexts” (1982) (+B h Æ +PC s ). The theorem GLS s Æ J h (T14), which suggests that speaker schemata and stereotypes play a causal role in the production of the gender-linked language effect makes conceptual sense, but the idea that energized speaker schemata cause hearer judgments seems empirically vacuous, as does GLS s Æ GLS h (T48), both analogous to the idea that speaker attitudes may cause corresponding attitudes in a hearer if the speaker is persuasive. Gender-linked language schemata (and stereotypes) is a hypothetical intervening variable the existence of which can be inferred from empirical indicators, but which does not enter into productive relationships with other hypothetical variables. The theorem GLB s Æ J h (T18) has been supported by many studies (Mulac & Lundell, 1980, 1982, 1986, 1994; Mulac, Studley, & Blau, 1990; Mulac, et al.,1988), whereas GLB s Æ B h (T19) has been supported (and investigated) in only a few instances, and these studies focused upon language behavior exclusively. It could be interesting to examine the effect of a speaker’s use of gender-linked language on hearers’ non-language behaviors, such as nonverbal attempts at dominance. Other theorems seem interesting to us also. The theorem J h Æ PC h (T31) suggests that a hearer’s judgments of speaker SIS, AQ, and D can affect the hearer’s perception of the communication context. Perhaps gender-linked language judgments induce heightened gender salience in situations where gender is not readily apparent, as in e-mail exchanges between strangers (+J h Æ +PC h ). Gender-linked language judgments may also affect a hearer’s gender- linked language schemata and stereotypes, perhaps reinforcing them (+J h Æ +GLS h ; T32). These

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
22
hearer’s use of the intensifiers “really” and “all” are two molecular language variables associated
with a speaker’s judgment of high hearer socio-intellectual status (Bradac, Mulac, & Thompson,
1995), and this judgment may heighten the extent to which the situational dimension of status is
salient in Giles and Ryan’s sense of the term “status-stressing contexts” (1982) (+B
h
Æ +PC
s
).
The theorem GLS
s
Æ J
h
(T14), which suggests that speaker schemata and stereotypes
play a causal role in the production of the gender-linked language effect makes conceptual sense,
but the idea that energized speaker schemata cause hearer judgments seems empirically vacuous,
as does GLS
s
Æ GLS
h
(T48), both analogous to the idea that speaker attitudes may cause
corresponding attitudes in a hearer if the speaker is persuasive. Gender-linked language schemata
(and stereotypes) is a hypothetical intervening variable the existence of which can be inferred
from empirical indicators, but which does not enter into productive relationships with other
hypothetical variables. The theorem GLB
s
Æ J
h
(T18) has been supported by many studies
(Mulac & Lundell, 1980, 1982, 1986, 1994; Mulac, Studley, & Blau, 1990; Mulac, et al.,1988),
whereas GLB
s
Æ B
h
(T19) has been supported (and investigated) in only a few instances, and
these studies focused upon language behavior exclusively. It could be interesting to examine the
effect of a speaker’s use of gender-linked language on hearers’ non-language behaviors, such as
nonverbal attempts at dominance.
Other theorems seem interesting to us also. The theorem J
h
Æ PC
h
(T31) suggests that a
hearer’s judgments of speaker SIS, AQ, and D can affect the hearer’s perception of the
communication context. Perhaps gender-linked language judgments induce heightened gender
salience in situations where gender is not readily apparent, as in e-mail exchanges between
strangers (+J
h
Æ +PC
h
). Gender-linked language judgments may also affect a hearer’s gender-
linked language schemata and stereotypes, perhaps reinforcing them (+J
h
Æ +GLS
h
; T32). These


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