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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 24 Thus, to summarize, our theorems suggest that a hearer’s behavior may affect her own judgments of a speaker’s socio-intellectual status, for example, and may also affect her own perceptions of the communication context, as well as her own language schemata and stereotypes. The speaker’s actual, objective use of gender-linked language features does not solely determine a hearer’s gender-related evaluative judgments. The hearer is an active agent in the process of language-attitudes activation (Bradac et al., 2001). This same hearer’s behavior, prompted by her evaluative judgments and perception of context, may also influence a speaker’s use of gender-linked language (a Pygmalion effect), may reinforce his gender-linked language schemata and stereotypes, and may change his perception of the communication context. Additionally, a hearer’s gender-linked language judgments may affect the hearer’s own perception of the communication context. The hearer’s perception of context may in turn influence her gender-linked language schemata and stereotypes, and vice versa. There is a reciprocal relationship indicated by the theorems. These schemata and stereotypes may also be affected by the hearer’s gender-linked language judgments, which may reinforce or intensify them. A speaker’s gender-linked language behavior may influence both his own and the hearer’s perceptions of context, and the hearer’s behavior toward the speaker may affect the speaker’s perception of context (as suggested in the previous paragraph), all of which supports the idea that language is a shaper of communication situations (Giles & Hewstone, 1982). Implications and Conclusion Our general process model can be applied to various communication situations. For example, two men and two women are dining at a rather formal restaurant and unexpectedly a large person passes their table wearing a white duck costume. This situational input interrupts their serious conversation and the context becomes a humorous one. One of the men says, “I

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
24
Thus, to summarize, our theorems suggest that a hearer’s behavior may affect her own
judgments of a speaker’s socio-intellectual status, for example, and may also affect her own
perceptions of the communication context, as well as her own language schemata and
stereotypes. The speaker’s actual, objective use of gender-linked language features does not
solely determine a hearer’s gender-related evaluative judgments. The hearer is an active agent in
the process of language-attitudes activation (Bradac et al., 2001). This same hearer’s behavior,
prompted by her evaluative judgments and perception of context, may also influence a speaker’s
use of gender-linked language (a Pygmalion effect), may reinforce his gender-linked language
schemata and stereotypes, and may change his perception of the communication context.
Additionally, a hearer’s gender-linked language judgments may affect the hearer’s own
perception of the communication context. The hearer’s perception of context may in turn
influence her gender-linked language schemata and stereotypes, and vice versa. There is a
reciprocal relationship indicated by the theorems. These schemata and stereotypes may also be
affected by the hearer’s gender-linked language judgments, which may reinforce or intensify
them. A speaker’s gender-linked language behavior may influence both his own and the hearer’s
perceptions of context, and the hearer’s behavior toward the speaker may affect the speaker’s
perception of context (as suggested in the previous paragraph), all of which supports the idea that
language is a shaper of communication situations (Giles & Hewstone, 1982).
Implications and Conclusion
Our general process model can be applied to various communication situations. For
example, two men and two women are dining at a rather formal restaurant and unexpectedly a
large person passes their table wearing a white duck costume. This situational input interrupts
their serious conversation and the context becomes a humorous one. One of the men says, “I


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