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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 3 Finding #3. Language differences, not other factors such as stereotypes, are implicated in the judgmental differences. In the investigations in which we have used trained coders to assess language differences, and untrained raters to measure psychological characteristics of the communicators, we have employed multiple regression analysis to determine whether ratings on SIS, AQ, and D could be predicted by language differences. Results have consistently shown that the language features that distinguished male from female communicators also were implicated in the differences in SIS, AQ, and D. In addition, when untrained observers were asked to “guess the sex” of the speakers or writers, they were unable to do so with anything better than chance accuracy, thus ruling out the possibility of gender stereotypes influencing judgments. Finding #4. This Gender-Linked Language Effect is consistent with, but independent of, gender stereotypes. In an experimental study that elicited both the GLLE and gender stereotypes (Mulac, Incantro, & James, 1985), we found that the language effect as well as gender stereotypes could be elicited separately, combined to double the effect, or pitted against each other to cancel out the effect. However, even though this result established the independence of the two effects, the correlational analysis of the two showed an incredibly high degree of correspondence (r = .93, showing 86% degree of overlap between the two effects). A Few Contextualizing Comments Some comments about the general structure of the model should provide a context that will serve as a transition and will assist comprehension of the model’s particulars. Effects have immediate and non-immediate antecedents and the same can be said for the consequences of these effects. A description of these antecedents and consequences along with a depiction (and discussion) of their interrelationships is the essence of a causal process model. This kind of model (when it is plausible) gives a good sense of explanation for the phenomenon being

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
3
Finding #3. Language differences, not other factors such as stereotypes, are implicated in
the judgmental differences. In the investigations in which we have used trained coders to assess
language differences, and untrained raters to measure psychological characteristics of the
communicators, we have employed multiple regression analysis to determine whether ratings on
SIS, AQ, and D could be predicted by language differences. Results have consistently shown that
the language features that distinguished male from female communicators also were implicated
in the differences in SIS, AQ, and D. In addition, when untrained observers were asked to “guess
the sex” of the speakers or writers, they were unable to do so with anything better than chance
accuracy, thus ruling out the possibility of gender stereotypes influencing judgments.
Finding #4. This Gender-Linked Language Effect is consistent with, but independent of,
gender stereotypes. In an experimental study that elicited both the GLLE and gender stereotypes
(Mulac, Incantro, & James, 1985), we found that the language effect as well as gender
stereotypes could be elicited separately, combined to double the effect, or pitted against each
other to cancel out the effect. However, even though this result established the independence of
the two effects, the correlational analysis of the two showed an incredibly high degree of
correspondence (r = .93, showing 86% degree of overlap between the two effects).
A Few Contextualizing Comments
Some comments about the general structure of the model should provide a context that
will serve as a transition and will assist comprehension of the model’s particulars. Effects have
immediate and non-immediate antecedents and the same can be said for the consequences of
these effects. A description of these antecedents and consequences along with a depiction (and
discussion) of their interrelationships is the essence of a causal process model. This kind of
model (when it is plausible) gives a good sense of explanation for the phenomenon being


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