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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 4 examined (Reynolds, 1971). Pavitt (2000) calls attention to a particular kind of causal process theory that he characterizes as “input-process-output,” which could also be labeled input-mediator-output, implying that some variable or variables intervene between inputs and outputs, affecting the impact of inputs and shaping the character of outputs. Examples of this kind of structure, according to Pavitt, are apparent in work on group processes (Hewes, 1986), lexical variation (Bradac, Bowers, & Courtright (1979), and comforting messages (Samter & Burleson, 1984). Bradac, Cargile, and Hallett’s recent model of the language-attitudes process is another example of the input-process-output structure (2001; also Cargile & Bradac, 2001). Additionally, Berger and Calabrese’s well-known uncertainty reduction theory (1975) can be viewed from the perspective of this framework (Bradac, 2001; Pavitt, 2000). For example, perceived communicator similarity is inversely related to a message recipient’s subjective uncertainty about the communicator, and uncertainty is inversely related to the recipient’s liking for the communicator (Axioms 6 and 7). In this case, perceived communicator similarity functions as input to a message recipient’s uncertainty about the communicator and the output of uncertainty is some degree of liking (or disliking): similarity Æ uncertainty Æ (dis)liking; or, more specifically as the theory suggests, + similarity Æ - uncertainty Æ + liking. Axioms 6 and 7 generate Theorem 21: + similarity Æ + liking, so in addition to exhibiting the input-output- process design, uncertainty reduction theory can be described as an axiomatic theory. Our model can be seen as a more general version of this type of explanatory structure. Now we will describe the variables that participate in the gender-linked language process. The structure of the process can be represented diagrammatically in the following way: situational inputs to speaker (SI) Æ speaker perception of context (PC s ) Æ speaker’s gender-

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
4
examined (Reynolds, 1971).
Pavitt (2000) calls attention to a particular kind of causal process theory that he
characterizes as “input-process-output,” which could also be labeled input-mediator-output,
implying that some variable or variables intervene between inputs and outputs, affecting the
impact of inputs and shaping the character of outputs. Examples of this kind of structure,
according to Pavitt, are apparent in work on group processes (Hewes, 1986), lexical variation
(Bradac, Bowers, & Courtright (1979), and comforting messages (Samter & Burleson, 1984).
Bradac, Cargile, and Hallett’s recent model of the language-attitudes process is another example
of the input-process-output structure (2001; also Cargile & Bradac, 2001). Additionally, Berger
and Calabrese’s well-known uncertainty reduction theory (1975) can be viewed from the
perspective of this framework (Bradac, 2001; Pavitt, 2000). For example, perceived
communicator similarity is inversely related to a message recipient’s subjective uncertainty
about the communicator, and uncertainty is inversely related to the recipient’s liking for the
communicator (Axioms 6 and 7). In this case, perceived communicator similarity functions as
input to a message recipient’s uncertainty about the communicator and the output of uncertainty
is some degree of liking (or disliking): similarity Æ uncertainty Æ (dis)liking; or, more
specifically as the theory suggests, + similarity Æ - uncertainty Æ + liking. Axioms 6 and 7
generate Theorem 21: + similarity Æ + liking, so in addition to exhibiting the input-output-
process design, uncertainty reduction theory can be described as an axiomatic theory. Our model
can be seen as a more general version of this type of explanatory structure.
Now we will describe the variables that participate in the gender-linked language process.
The structure of the process can be represented diagrammatically in the following way:
situational inputs to speaker (SI) Æ speaker perception of context (PC
s
) Æ speaker’s gender-


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