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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 5 linked language schemata and stereotypes (GLS s ) Æ gender-linked language behaviors of speaker (GLB s ) Æ (and +) hearer perception of context (PC h ) Æ hearer’s gender-linked language schemata and stereotypes (GLS h ) Æ hearer judgments of SIS, AQ, and D (J h ) Æ hearer behaviors toward speaker (PC h ). We will expand on this below, but briefly the representation suggests that specific features of situations perceived by speakers both form and trigger cognitive schemata and stereotypes reflecting the intersection of gender and language; these cognitive structures are used by speakers to produce gender-linked language. (Below we will discuss the relationship between schemata and stereotypes.) Hearers (or readers) perceive the communication context, including fixed speaker attributes such as sex, along with the speaker’s language. We have placed both a + and an arrow (Æ) before “hearer perception of context,” because in some cases the context is rigidly preordained for speakers and hearers, or at least particular contextual features such as speaker attributes are fixed, whereas in other cases (probably most, actually) speakers actively shape the communication context (Giles & Hewstone, 1982)—the speaker’s language thus may play a causal role in shaping the hearer’s perception of context. (We take for granted that the hearer is perceptually active via mechanisms such as expectancies and that the hearer can also shape the context linguistically.) Both perceptions of context and the speaker’s gender-linked language activate hearer schemata and stereotypes which affect hearer judgments of the speaker’s socio-intellectual status, aesthetic quality, and dynamism, and these judgments serve as one basis for the hearer’s behaviors toward the speaker (including the hearer’s language behavior, which can play a context-shaping role). So, abstractly the process can be represented as: SI Æ PC s Æ GLS s Æ GLB s Æ (+) PC h Æ GLS h Æ J h Æ B h This can be made more complex by the addition of SI Æ PC h and SI Æ GLS h , as a loop, which

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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background image
General Process Model of the GLLE
5
linked language schemata and stereotypes (GLS
s
) Æ gender-linked language behaviors of
speaker (GLB
s
) Æ (and +) hearer perception of context (PC
h
) Æ hearer’s gender-linked language
schemata and stereotypes (GLS
h
) Æ hearer judgments of SIS, AQ, and D (J
h
) Æ hearer
behaviors toward speaker (PC
h
). We will expand on this below, but briefly the representation
suggests that specific features of situations perceived by speakers both form and trigger cognitive
schemata and stereotypes reflecting the intersection of gender and language; these cognitive
structures are used by speakers to produce gender-linked language. (Below we will discuss the
relationship between schemata and stereotypes.) Hearers (or readers) perceive the
communication context, including fixed speaker attributes such as sex, along with the speaker’s
language. We have placed both a + and an arrow (Æ) before “hearer perception of context,”
because in some cases the context is rigidly preordained for speakers and hearers, or at least
particular contextual features such as speaker attributes are fixed, whereas in other cases
(probably most, actually) speakers actively shape the communication context (Giles &
Hewstone, 1982)—the speaker’s language thus may play a causal role in shaping the hearer’s
perception of context. (We take for granted that the hearer is perceptually active via mechanisms
such as expectancies and that the hearer can also shape the context linguistically.) Both
perceptions of context and the speaker’s gender-linked language activate hearer schemata and
stereotypes which affect hearer judgments of the speaker’s socio-intellectual status, aesthetic
quality, and dynamism, and these judgments serve as one basis for the hearer’s behaviors toward
the speaker (including the hearer’s language behavior, which can play a context-shaping role).
So, abstractly the process can be represented as:
SI Æ PC
s
Æ GLS
s
Æ GLB
s
Æ (+) PC
h
Æ GLS
h
Æ J
h
Æ B
h
This can be made more complex by the addition of SI Æ PC
h
and SI Æ GLS
h
, as a loop, which


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