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A general process model of the gender-linked language effect: Antecedents for and consequences of language used by men and women
Unformatted Document Text:  General Process Model of the GLLE 8 Situational inputs: SI 2 Some situations make gender especially salient and are likely to activate gender schemata and stereotypes, including those related to language (e.g., Palomares, 2002; Reid, Keerie, & Palomares, 2002). Other situations make other dimensions of thought and perception salient, minimizing gender concerns; for example, when a train hits a gasoline truck at a crossing, for many involved people the dimension “inside the train/(getting) outside” will probably assume prominence (although even here gender concerns may not be suppressed entirely, as some men may not want to appear frightened). Also, there is variation among people in the extent to which gender is chronically salient (Bem, 1985). There is reason to infer that gender is typically salient to some degree in many situations. For one thing, and pertinently, the gender-linked language effect has been obtained in a variety of communication contexts. The default option appears to be: Speak in gender-consistent ways unless the situation suggests minimizing or emphasizing gender or even speaking gender-inconsistently. Hogg (1985) offers the general proposition that “as the subjective salience of gender identity to [a] speaker varies so does the degree of identity congruent behaviour” (p. 100)— presumably, congruence varies directly with salience; however, he also suggests that situational factors such as intergroup power and status differentials among interactants may disrupt the salience-congruence relationship. Among the types of situations that increase gender salience are intergroup encounters between men and women, i.e., mixed-sex interactions (Hogg, 1985; Hogg & Turner, 1987). This is parallel to interethnic encounters where ethnic identity may become especially salient (Christian, Gadfield, Giles, & Taylor, 1976). There is evidence that both linguistic convergence and divergence may occur in such mixed-sex situations, with men using a more masculine verbal style (divergent and gender-congruent) and women also using a relatively

Authors: Mulac, Anthony., Bradac, James. and Palomares, Nicholas.
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General Process Model of the GLLE
8
Situational inputs: SI
2
Some situations make gender especially salient and are likely to activate gender schemata
and stereotypes, including those related to language (e.g., Palomares, 2002; Reid, Keerie, &
Palomares, 2002). Other situations make other dimensions of thought and perception salient,
minimizing gender concerns; for example, when a train hits a gasoline truck at a crossing, for
many involved people the dimension “inside the train/(getting) outside” will probably assume
prominence (although even here gender concerns may not be suppressed entirely, as some men
may not want to appear frightened). Also, there is variation among people in the extent to which
gender is chronically salient (Bem, 1985). There is reason to infer that gender is typically salient
to some degree in many situations. For one thing, and pertinently, the gender-linked language
effect has been obtained in a variety of communication contexts. The default option appears to
be: Speak in gender-consistent ways unless the situation suggests minimizing or emphasizing
gender or even speaking gender-inconsistently.
Hogg (1985) offers the general proposition that “as the subjective salience of gender
identity to [a] speaker varies so does the degree of identity congruent behaviour” (p. 100)—
presumably, congruence varies directly with salience; however, he also suggests that situational
factors such as intergroup power and status differentials among interactants may disrupt the
salience-congruence relationship. Among the types of situations that increase gender salience are
intergroup encounters between men and women, i.e., mixed-sex interactions (Hogg, 1985; Hogg
& Turner, 1987). This is parallel to interethnic encounters where ethnic identity may become
especially salient (Christian, Gadfield, Giles, & Taylor, 1976). There is evidence that both
linguistic convergence and divergence may occur in such mixed-sex situations, with men using a
more masculine verbal style (divergent and gender-congruent) and women also using a relatively


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