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Quotes and Agendas: Israelis vs. Palestinians on Media, Public and Policy Agendas
Unformatted Document Text:  Fan-Page 4 Media agenda 1 2 3 Public agenda 4 5 6 Policy makers’ agenda 7 8 9 ________________________________________________________________ Many studies have focused on type 4 interactions in which the media influence the public agenda. One reason for this preferred direction, as Rogers & Dearing (1988) argue, relates to the persistent debate on media effects. i In addition, studies of type 7 and 8 interactions have also been performed. Lately, the intra-media direction has been investigated (namely, type 1; see, for example, Kepplinger et al., 1986; Reese & Danielan, 1989; Mathes & Pfetsch, 1991). By contrast, very little attention has been paid to the flow from the public to the media and within the public (types 2 and 5) although several studies provide empirical evidence of the public’s ability to affect media agenda (Brosius & Kepplinger, 1990; Schenk & Roessler, 1994; Siune & Borre, 1975; Smith 1987a, 1987b; Wanta, 1989). Although agenda items can influence each other according to the nine types of interactions suggested by Rogers & Dearing, the three of agendas (i.e., media agenda, public agenda and policy agenda) can also be affected by new events and facts that may not be generated by the original parties in a dispute. For the Middle East, that would include the terrorist attacks by Osama bin Laden’s followers on the twin towers of the New York Trade Center and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The impact of these September 11, 2001 attacks is also examined in the present study. The structure of the Israeli/Palestinian agenda in the United States Having argued that attention should be paid to Middle Eastern influences which change only slowly over time, this paper examines the evolution of key agenda items over time periods of up to a quarter century using the Rogers & Dearing categories of the media agenda, the public agenda and the policy agenda of decision makers. Both Israelis and Palestinians are very interested in affecting all three agendas. However, each side’s agenda differs significantly from that of the other: at various times, Chairman Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian have tried to promote the issues of establishing a free state, ending the Israeli occupation and the suffering of the Palestinian people. In contrast, the Israeli agenda has included issues like Palestinian terrorism, securing the future of the Jewish state, and the desire for peace with all of Israel’s neighbors. However, desired policies have changed over time for both parties with the emphasis being more bellicose during the Intifada, an uprising by Palestinians, and more pacific during other periods such as the one following the Oslo Peace accord between Israel and the Palestinians. Nevertheless, at any given time, both sides have devoted time, money, professional personnel and endless efforts to influencing the three agendas.

Authors: Fan, David. and Weimann, Gabriel.
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background image
Fan-Page 4

Media agenda
1 2
3

Public agenda 4 5 6

Policy makers’ agenda 7
8 9
________________________________________________________________
Many studies have focused on type 4 interactions in which the media influence the public
agenda. One reason for this preferred direction, as Rogers & Dearing (1988) argue, relates to the
persistent debate on media effects.
i
In addition, studies of type 7 and 8 interactions have also
been performed. Lately, the intra-media direction has been investigated (namely, type 1; see, for
example, Kepplinger et al., 1986; Reese & Danielan, 1989; Mathes & Pfetsch, 1991). By
contrast, very little attention has been paid to the flow from the public to the media and within
the public (types 2 and 5) although several studies provide empirical evidence of the public’s
ability to affect media agenda (Brosius & Kepplinger, 1990; Schenk & Roessler, 1994; Siune &
Borre, 1975; Smith 1987a, 1987b; Wanta, 1989).

Although agenda items can influence each other according to the nine types of interactions
suggested by Rogers & Dearing, the three of agendas (i.e., media agenda, public agenda and
policy agenda) can also be affected by new events and facts that may not be generated by the
original parties in a dispute. For the Middle East, that would include the terrorist attacks by
Osama bin Laden’s followers on the twin towers of the New York Trade Center and the
Pentagon in Washington, DC. The impact of these September 11, 2001 attacks is also examined
in the present study.

The structure of the Israeli/Palestinian agenda in the United States

Having argued that attention should be paid to Middle Eastern influences which change only
slowly over time, this paper examines the evolution of key agenda items over time periods of up
to a quarter century using the Rogers & Dearing categories of the media agenda, the public
agenda and the policy agenda of decision makers.

Both Israelis and Palestinians are very interested in affecting all three agendas. However, each
side’s agenda differs significantly from that of the other: at various times, Chairman Yasser
Arafat and the Palestinian have tried to promote the issues of establishing a free state, ending the
Israeli occupation and the suffering of the Palestinian people. In contrast, the Israeli agenda has
included issues like Palestinian terrorism, securing the future of the Jewish state, and the desire
for peace with all of Israel’s neighbors.

However, desired policies have changed over time for both parties with the emphasis being more
bellicose during the Intifada, an uprising by Palestinians, and more pacific during other periods
such as the one following the Oslo Peace accord between Israel and the Palestinians.
Nevertheless, at any given time, both sides have devoted time, money, professional personnel
and endless efforts to influencing the three agendas.


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